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Quantum Well

Quantum Well patent applications listed include Date, Patent Application Number, Patent Title, Patent Abstract summary and are linked to the corresponding patent application page.

Related Categories:

Active Solid-state Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-state Diodes)


Thin Active Physical Layer Which Is (1) An Active Potential Well Layer Thin Enough To Establish Discrete Quantum Energy Levels Or (2) An Active Barrier Layer Thin Enough To Permit Quantum Mechanical Tunneling Or (3) An Active Layer Thin Enough To Permit Carrier Transmission With Substantially No Scattering (e.g., Superlattice Quantum Well, Or Ballistic Transport Device) > Heterojunction > Quantum Well



Polarization independent photodetector with high contrast grating and two dimensional period structure
12/04/14 - 20140353583 - A photodetector is provided with a high contrast grating (HCG) reflector first reflector that has a two dimensional periodic structure. The two dimensional structure is a periodic structure that is a symmetric structure with periodic repeating. The symmetrical structure provides that polarization modes of light are undistinguishable. A second reflector...

Low-resistivity p-type gasb quantum wells for low-power electronic devices
11/20/14 - 20140339501 - A semiconductor device including a heterostructure having at least one low-resistivity p-type GaSb quantum well is provided. The heterostructure includes a layer of InwAl1−wAs on a semi-insulating (100) InP substrate, where the InwAl1−wAs is lattice matched to InP, followed by an AlAsxSb1−x buffer layer on the InwAl1−wAs layer, an AlAsxSb1−x...

Elemental semiconductor material contact for high indium content ingan light emitting diodes
11/20/14 - 20140339502 - A vertical stack including a p-doped GaN portion, a multi-quantum-well including indium gallium nitride layers, and an n-doped transparent conductive material portion is formed on an insulator substrate. A dielectric material liner is formed around the vertical stack, and is patterned to physically expose a surface of the p-doped GaN...

Elemental semiconductor material contact for gan-based light emitting diodes
11/20/14 - 20140339503 - A vertical stack including a p-doped GaN portion, a multi-quantum-well, and an n-doped GaN portion is formed on an insulator substrate. The p-doped GaN portion may be formed above, or below, the multi-quantum-well. A dielectric material liner is formed around the vertical stack, and is patterned to physically expose a...

Single-walled carbon nanotube-based planar photodector
10/30/14 - 20140319461 - A single-walled carbon nanotube-based planar photodetector includes a substrate; a first electrode and a second electrode disposed on the substrate and spaced apart from each other; a plurality of single-walled carbon nanotubes, each of the plurality of single-walled carbon nanotubes contacting the first electrode and the second electrode; and an...

Collodial semiconducting structure
10/23/14 - 20140312302 - The present invention is based on a unique design of a novel structure, which incorporates two quantum dots of a different bandgap separated by a tunneling barrier. Upconversion is expected to occur by the sequential absorption of two photons. In broad terms, the first photon excites an electron-hole pair via...

Electronic device, solid state imaging apparatus, and method of producing electrode for electronic device
10/16/14 - 20140306180 - There are provided an electronic device including a first electrode, a second electrode and a photoelectric conversion layer sandwiched between the first electrode and the second electrode, the first electrode including an amorphous oxide composed of at least a quaternary compound of indium, gallium and/or aluminum, zinc and oxygen, and...

Multiple quantum well structure
10/02/14 - 20140291613 - A multiple quantum well structure including a plurality of well-barrier pairs arranged along a direction is provided. Each of the well-barrier pairs includes a barrier layer and a well layer adjacent to the barrier layer. The barrier layers and the well layers of the well-barrier pairs are disposed alternately. A...

Broadband image sensor and manufacturing thereof
09/18/14 - 20140264270 - This invention relates to multiband detector and multiband image sensing devices, and their manufacturing technologies. The innovative detector (or image sensing) provides significant broadband capability covering the wavelengths from within ultra-violet (UV) to long-Infrared, and it is achieved in a single element. More particularly, this invention is related to the...

Ferroelectric memory device
09/18/14 - 20140264271 - A ferroelectric memory device includes a memory layer, made of a silicon-based ferroelectric memory material. The silicon-based ferroelectric memory material includes a mesoporous silica film with nanopores and atomic polar structures on inner walls of the nanopores. The atomic polar structures are formed by asymmetrically bonding metal ions to silicon-oxygen...

Semiconductor diodes fabricated by aspect ratio trapping with coalesced films
09/18/14 - 20140264272 - A photonic device comprises a substrate and a dielectric material including two or more openings that expose a portion of the substrate, the two or more openings each having an aspect ratio of at least 1. A bottom diode material comprising a compound semiconductor material that is lattice mismatched to...

Tunnel diodes incorporating strain-balanced, quantum-confined heterostructures
09/11/14 - 20140252312 - A strain-balanced quantum well tunnel junction (SB-QWTJ) device. QW structures are formed from alternating quantum well and barrier layers situated between n++ and p++ layers in a tunnel junction formed on a substrate. The quantum well layers exhibit a compressive strain with respect to the substrate, while the barrier layers...

Nano particle, nano particle complex having the same and method of fabricating the same
08/21/14 - 20140231749 - Disclosed are a nano particle, a nano particle complex and a method of fabricating the nano particle. The nano particle includes a compound semiconductor having a first metal element and a second metal element. The property of the nano particle is readily controlled depending on the composition of the first...

Quantum dot-fullerene junction based photodetectors
08/14/14 - 20140225063 - A photodetector includes one or more photodiodes and a signal processing circuit. Each photodiode includes a transparent first electrode, a second electrode, and a heterojunction interposed between the first electrode and the second electrode. Each heterojunction includes a quantum dot layer and a fullerene layer disposed directly on the quantum...

Semiconductor device and method for manufacturing the same
08/07/14 - 20140217362 - The present invention discloses a method for manufacturing a semiconductor device, which comprises: forming a plurality of fins on a substrate, which extend along a first direction and have rhombus-like cross-sections; forming a gate stack structure on each fin, which traverses the plurality of fins and extends along a second...

Low-resistivity p-type gasb quantum wells
08/07/14 - 20140217363 - A semiconductor device including a heterostructure having at least one low-resistivity p-type GaSb quantum well is provided. The heterostructure includes a layer of In0.52Al0.48As on an InP substrate, where the In0.52Al0.48As is lattice matched to InP, followed by an AlAsxSb1-x buffer layer on the In0.52Al0.48As layer, an AlAsxSb1-x spacer layer...

Nitride semiconductor device
07/24/14 - 20140203242 - In the nitride semiconductor device of the present invention, an active layer 12 is sandwiched between a p-type nitride semiconductor layer 11 and an n-type nitride semiconductor layer 13. The active layer 12 has, at least, a barrier layer 2a having an n-type impurity; a well layer 1a made of...

Planar electronic semiconductor device
04/24/14 - 20140110668 - An electronic device includes a substrate supporting mobile charge carriers, insulative features formed on the substrate surface to define first and second substrate areas on either side of the insulative features, the first and second substrate areas being connected by an elongate channel defined by the insulative features, the channel...

Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition
04/03/14 - 20140091278 - Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals....

Nitride semiconductor device and method of manufacturing the same
03/06/14 - 20140061587 - A nitride semiconductor device includes a dislocation control layer on a substrate, and a nitride semiconductor layer on the dislocation control layer. The dislocation control layer includes a nanocomposite of a first nanoparticle made of a first material and at least one second nanoparticle made of a second material....

Interpenetrating networks of carbon nanostructures and nano-scale electroactive materials
02/13/14 - 20140042390 - An interpenetrating network assembly with a network of connected flakes of nano-scale crystalline carbon and nano-scale particles of an electroactive material interconnected with the carbon flakes is provided. The network assemblies are particularly suited for energy storage applications that use metal oxide electroactive materials and a single charge collector or...

Quantum well thermoelectric component for use in a thermoelectric device
01/30/14 - 20140027714 - the conducting semiconductor material is an alloy comprising silicon, germanium and at least a lattice-matching element, the lattice-matching element(s) being present in order to control a lattice parameter mismatch between the barrier layer made of the barrier semiconductor material and the conducting layer made of the conducting semiconductor material....

Structures and methods relating to graphene
01/09/14 - 20140008611 - This application relates to graphene based heterostructures and methods of making graphene based heterostructures. The graphene heterostructures comprise: i) a first encapsulation layer; ii) a second encapsulation layer; and iii) a graphene layer. The heterostructures find application in electronic devices....

Coupled asymmetric quantum confinement structures
01/09/14 - 20140008612 - Implementations and techniques for coupled asymmetric quantum confinement structures are generally disclosed....

Nanocrystals with high extinction coefficients and methods of making and using such nanocrystals
01/02/14 - 20140001436 - A population of bright and stable nanocrystals is provided. The nanocrystals include a semiconductor core and a thick semiconductor shell and can exhibit high extinction coefficients, high quantum yields, and limited or no detectable blinking....

Solid-state imaging device, method for manufacturing solid-state imaging device, and imaging apparatus
12/19/13 - 20130334494 - A solid-state imaging device includes a first electrode, a second electrode disposed opposing to the first electrode, and a photoelectric conversion layer, which is disposed between the first electrode and the second electrode and in which narrow gap semiconductor quantum dots are dispersed in a conductive layer, wherein one electrode...

Gaas/ingaas axial heterostructure formation in nanopillars by catalyst-free selective area mocvd
12/12/13 - 20130328014 - An axially hetero-structured nanowire includes a first segment that includes GaAs, and a second segment integral with the first that includes InxGa1-xAs. The parameter x has a maximum value x-max within the second segment that is at least 0.02 and less than 0.5. A nanostructured semiconductor component includes a GaAs...

Devices comprising graphene and a conductive polymer and related systems and methods
12/05/13 - 20130320302 - The present invention generally relates to devices comprising graphene and a conductive polymer (e.g., poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)), and related systems and methods. In some embodiments, the conductive polymer is formed by oxidative chemical vapor deposition....

Simplified devices utilizing novel pn-semiconductor structures
11/14/13 - 20130299780 - An electronic or electro-optic device includes a p-type semiconductor layer, an n-type semiconductor layer having a region of contact with the p-type semiconductor layer to provide a p-n junction, a first electrical lead in electrical connection with the p-type semiconductor layer, and a second electrical lead in electrical connection with...

Formation of a graphene layer on a large substrate
10/31/13 - 20130285014 - A single crystalline silicon carbide layer can be grown on a single crystalline sapphire substrate. Subsequently, a graphene layer can be formed by conversion of a surface layer of the single crystalline silicon layer during an anneal at an elevated temperature in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. Alternately, a graphene layer...

Gallium nitride substrate and epitaxial wafer
09/26/13 - 20130248820 - A gallium nitride substrate includes a plurality of physical level differences in a surface thereof. All the physical level differences existing in the surface have a dimension of not more than 4 μm. A relationship of (H−L)/H×100≦80 is satisfied in all the physical level differences, where H represents a higher...

Method of fabricating optical devices using laser treatment
09/12/13 - 20130234111 - A method for forming optical devices. The method includes providing a gallium nitride substrate member having a crystalline surface region and a backside region. The method also includes subjecting the backside region to a laser scribing process to form a plurality of scribe regions on the backside region and forming...

Semiconductor optical modulator
09/12/13 - 20130234112 - A semiconductor optical modulator includes a first n-type semiconductor region, a first p-type semiconductor region, an i-type semiconductor region, a second p-type semiconductor region, and a second n-type semiconductor region that constitute a stacked layer structure. The stacked layer structure includes a first cladding layer, a second cladding layer, and...

Method of forming hybrid nanostructure on graphene, hybrid nanostructure, and device including the hybrid nanostructure
06/20/13 - 20130153860 - A method of forming a hybrid nanostructure on graphene, the method including providing a graphene layer on a substrate; forming a metal layer on the graphene layer; and chemically depositing a nanomaterial on the graphene layer on which the metal layer is formed to form the hybrid nanostructure....

Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties
06/13/13 - 20130146843 - Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires...

Quantum well device with lateral electrodes
06/06/13 - 20130140523 - An apparatus includes a substrate, a sequence of crystalline semiconductor layers on a planar surface of the substrate, and first and second sets of electrodes over the sequence. The sequence has a 2D quantum well therein. The first set of electrodes border opposite sides of a lateral region of the...

Nanoparticle synthesis
06/06/13 - 20130140524 - A noble metal nanoparticle can be grown on a semiconductor substrate by contacting a predetermined region of the substrate with a solution including noble metal ions. The predetermined region of the semiconductor substrate can be exposed by applying a polymeric layer over the substrate selectively removing a portion of the...

Suppression of relaxation by limited area epitaxy on non-c-plane (in,al,b,ga)n
04/25/13 - 20130099202 - An (AlInGaN) based semiconductor device, including one or more (In,Al)GaN layers overlying a semi-polar or non-polar III-nitride substrate or buffer layer, wherein the substrate or buffer employs patterning to influence or control extended defect morphology in layers deposited on the substrate; and one or more (AlInGaN) device layers above and/or...

Semiconductor device
03/28/13 - 20130075698 - A semiconductor device includes a first semiconductor layer provided over a substrate; an electron transit layer contacting a top of the first semiconductor layer; and a second semiconductor layer contacting a top of the electron transit layer, wherein the electron transit layer has a dual quantum well layer having a...

Ge quantum dots for dislocation engineering of iii-n on silicon
03/21/13 - 20130069039 - A virtual substrate structure includes a crystalline silicon substrate with a first layer of III-N grown on the silicon substrate. Ge clusters or quantum dots are grown on the first layer of III-N and a second layer of III-N is grown on the Ge clusters or quantum dots and any...

Nitride semiconductor device
03/07/13 - 20130056707 - In the nitride semiconductor device of the present invention, an active layer 12 is sandwiched between a p-type nitride semiconductor layer 11 and an n-type nitride semiconductor layer 13. The active layer 12 has, at least, a barrier layer 2a having an n-type impurity, a well layer 1a made of...

Photodiode, optical sensor device, and photodiode manufacturing method
02/07/13 - 20130032780 - A photodiode and the like capable of preventing the responsivity on the short wavelength side from deteriorating while totally improving the responsivity in a type II MQW structure, is provided. The photodiode is formed on a group III-V compound semiconductor substrate 1, and includes a pixel P. The photodiode includes...

Epitaxial wafer, photodiode, optical sensor device, and methods for producing epitaxial wafer and photodiode
12/27/12 - 20120326122 - The production method includes a step of growing an antimony (Sb)-containing layer on a substrate 1 by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy using only metal-organic sources; and a step of growing, on the antimony-containing layer, an antimony-free layer including a window layer 5, wherein, from the growth of the antimony-containing layer...

Semiconductor device and method for manufacturing semiconductor device
12/13/12 - 20120313078 - Disclosed is a semiconductor device (10) which comprises a glass substrate (12), a lower electrode layer (14), an n-type doped polycrystalline silicon semiconductor layer (16), a low-temperature insulating film (20) in which openings (22, 23) that serve as nuclei for growth of a nanowire (32) are formed, the nanowire (32)...

Suppression of inclined defect formation and increase in critical thickness by silicon doping on non-c-plane (al,ga,in)n
11/15/12 - 20120286241 - A method for fabricating a III-nitride based semiconductor device, including (a) growing one or more buffer layers on or above a semi-polar or non-polar GaN substrate, wherein the buffer layers are semi-polar or non-polar III-nitride buffer layers; and (b) doping the buffer layers so that a number of crystal defects...

Single-quantum dot device and method of manufacturing the same
10/11/12 - 20120256165 - The present disclosure provides a single-quantum dot device and a method of manufacturing the same. A transparent dielectric thin film is formed on a cover layer and an energy band of quantum dots is adjusted based on compressive stress due to difference in coefficient of thermal expansion therebetween. Specifically, the...

Optoelectronic devices including compound valence-band quantum well structures
08/30/12 - 20120217475 - Semiconductor optoelectronic devices based on type-II band alignments comprising a compound valence-band quantum well structure, known as an H-layer, are disclosed. The use of the H-layer structure allows simultaneous optimization of optical properties of the semiconductor structures as well as lattice matching of the various layers of the device. The...

Frontside-illuminated inverted quantum well infrared photodetector devices and methods of fabricating the same
08/02/12 - 20120193608 - A method of fabricating a frontside-illuminated inverted quantum well infrared photodetector may include providing a quantum well wafer having a bulk substrate layer and a quantum material layer, wherein the quantum material layer includes a plurality of alternating quantum well layers and barrier layers epitaxially grown on the bulk substrate...

Stepwise surface assembly of quantum dot-fullerene heterodimers
07/26/12 - 20120187373 - The present invention relates to high-purity quantum dot-fullerene dimers with controllable linker length and the process of fabricating the same. More particularly, this invention relates to the design, synthesis, and application of high-purity quantum dot-fullerene dimers by applying a novel stepwise surface assembly procedure that ensures the formation of conjugates...

Chemically-etched nanostructures and related devices
06/21/12 - 20120153260 - A method of etching active quantum nanostructures provides the step of laterally etching of an intermediate active quantum nanostructure layer interposed between cladding layers. The lateral etching can be carried out on at least one side of the intermediate active quantum nanostructure layer selectively, with respect to the cladding layers...

Formation of a graphene layer on a large substrate
05/10/12 - 20120112164 - A single crystalline silicon carbide layer can be grown on a single crystalline sapphire substrate. Subsequently, a graphene layer can be formed by conversion of a surface layer of the single crystalline silicon layer during an anneal at an elevated temperature in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. Alternately, a graphene layer...

Semiconductor chip carriers with monolithically integrated quantum dot devices and method of manufacture thereof
05/03/12 - 20120104358 - A three-dimensional polycrystalline semiconductor material provides a major ingredient forming individual crystalline grains having a nominal maximum grain diameter less than or equal to 50 nm, and a minor ingredient forming boundaries between the individual crystalline grains....

Method of fabricating optical devices using laser treatment of contact regions of gallium and nitrogen containing material
05/03/12 - 20120104359 - A method for forming optical devices includes providing a gallium nitride substrate having a crystalline surface region and a backside region. The backside is subjected to a laser scribing process to form scribe regions. Metal contacts overly the scribe regions....

Inn nanowire based multifunctional nanocantilever sensors
03/22/12 - 20120068156 - Sensor are generally provided that include a layer of silicon oxide on a portion of a n+ layer to form an uneven surface where the layer of silicon oxide defines a thicker region than an exposed portion of the n+ layer. First and second metal contacts can be on the...

Infrared light detector
03/15/12 - 20120061647 - Provided is an infrared light detector 100 wherein a light coupling mechanism 110 is configured by a metal thin film or metal thin plate in which a plurality of windows apart from each other are formed. Each of the windows is formed by multangular shapes in which a part of...

Controlled quantum dot growth
03/08/12 - 20120056159 - The present disclosure generally relates to techniques for controlled quantum dot growth as well as a quantum dot structures. In some examples, a method is described that includes one or more of providing a substrate, forming a defect on the substrate, depositing a layer on the substrate and forming quantum...

Detection device, light-receiving element array, semiconductor chip, method for manufacturing the same, and optical sensor apparatus
02/09/12 - 20120032145 - A detection device includes a light-receiving element array and a read-out integrated circuit (CMOS), bumps of the light-receiving element array being bonded to bumps of the read-out integrated circuit, and at least one of the light-receiving element array and the read-out integrated circuit having a concaved surface which faces the...

Vertical light emitting diode (vled) die having electrode frame and method of fabrication
02/02/12 - 20120025167 - A vertical light emitting diode (VLED) die includes a metal base; a mirror on the metal base; a p-type semiconductor layer on the reflector layer; a multiple quantum well (MQW) layer on the p-type semiconductor layer configured to emit light; and an n-type semiconductor layer on the multiple quantum well...

Surface and gas phase doping of iii-v semiconductors
01/26/12 - 20120018702 - Compound semiconductor devices and methods of doping compound semiconductors are provided. Embodiments of the invention provide post-deposition (or post-growth) doping of compound semiconductors, enabling nanoscale compound semiconductor devices including diodes and transistors. In one method, a self-limiting monolayer technique with an annealing step is used to form shallow junctions. By...

Optoelectronic semiconductor component and method for the manufacture thereof
01/26/12 - 20120018703 - Manufacturing semiconductor heterostructures by way of molecular beam epitaxy, including placing a substrate into a first vacuum chamber, heating the substrate to a first temperature, depositing from at least one molecular beam a first epitaxial layer of a first material containing a binary, ternary or quaternary compound of elements of...

Photodetectors using resonance and method of making
01/19/12 - 20120012816 - An infrared photodetector comprising: a thin contact layer substantially transparent to infrared light; an absorption layer positioned such that light admitted through the substantially transparent thin contact area passes through the absorption layer; the absorption layer being configured to utilize resonance to increase absorption efficiency; at least one reflective side...

P-type semiconductor device comprising type-2 quantum well and fabrication method thereof
01/12/12 - 20120007045 - Disclosed herein are a method of generating a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) using a type-2 quantum well formed using semiconductors with different electron affinities or band gap, and a high-speed p-type semiconductor device using the 2DHG. To this end, the method includes providing a semiconductor substrate; growing a first semiconductor...

Carbon nanotube hybrid photovoltaics
01/12/12 - 20120007046 - Systems, methods and devices for the efficient photocurrent generation in single- or multi-walled carbon nanotubes, which includes (SWNTs)/poly [3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl] (P3HT) hybrid photovoltaics, and exhibit the following features: photocurrent measurement at individual SWNT/P3HT heterojunctions indicate that both semiconducting (s-) and metallic (m-) SWNTs function as excellent hole acceptors; electrical transport and...

Semiconductor light-emitting device
01/12/12 - 20120007047 - A semiconductor light-emitting device including a substrate, an n-type semiconductor layer formed on the substrate, an active layer laminated on the n-type semiconductor layer and capable of emitting a light, a p-type semiconductor layer laminated on the active layer, an n-electrode which is disposed on a lower surface of the...

High operating temperature split-off band infrared detector with double and/or graded barrier
12/29/11 - 20110315958 - A high operating temperature split-off band infrared (SPIP) detector having a double and/or graded barrier on either side of the emitter is provided. The photodetector may include a first and second barrier and an emitter disposed between the first and second barriers so as to form a heterojunction at each...

Generation of multiple diameter nanowire field effect transistors
11/17/11 - 20110278539 - A method of modifying a wafer having a semiconductor disposed on an insulator is provided and includes forming first and second nanowire channels connected at each end to semiconductor pads at first and second wafer regions, respectively, with second nanowire channel sidewalls being misaligned relative to a crystallographic plane of...

Semiconductor device and a method of fabricating a semiconductor device
11/10/11 - 20110272671 - A semiconductor device comprising a quantum dot and a plurality of layers, wherein said plurality of layers comprises: a first layer; a stressor layer; and a patterned layer wherein said stressor layer overlies said first layer and said patterned layer overlies said stressor layer; wherein said stressor layer has a...

Porous and non-porous nanostructures
11/03/11 - 20110266521 - Disclosed are a variety of porous and non-porous wire-like structures of microscopic and nanoscopic scale. For instance, disclosed are structures that comprise a porous object that comprises: (i) a first region; and (ii) a second region adjacent to the first region along an axis of the object, where the first...

Temperature sensor and manufacturing method of temperature sensor
09/22/11 - 20110227040 - A temperature sensor includes a semiconductor substrate and a quantum well structural part disposed on the semiconductor substrate. The semiconductor substrate is made of a plurality of elements. The quantum well structural part has a resistance value that changes with temperature. The quantum well structural part includes a plurality of...

Electronic devices and thermal image sensors that utilize embedded quantum dots
09/22/11 - 20110227041 - Integrated circuit devices include thermal image sensors that utilize quantum dots therein to provide negative resistance characteristics to at least portions of the sensors. The thermal image sensor may include a sensing unit configured to absorb radiation incident on a first surface thereof and first and second electrodes electrically coupled...

Formation of nanowhiskers on a substrate of dissimilar material
09/08/11 - 20110215297 - A method for forming a nanowhisker of, e.g., a III-V semiconductor material on a silicon substrate, comprises: preparing a surface of the silicon substrate with measures including passivating the substrate surface by HF etching, so that the substrate surface is essentially atomically flat. Catalytic particles on the substrate surface are...