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Sealing plate and rotor blade system

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Title: Sealing plate and rotor blade system.
Abstract: A rotor blade system, for example, of a gas turbine is provided. The rotor blade system includes a plurality of rotor blades which are arranged annularly on a rotor disk. A plurality of sealing plates are arranged on a side surface of the rotor disk. An individual sealing plate is formed from a plurality of metal sheets, wherein two of the metal sheets are arranged opposite each other a distance apart and parallel to a plane of the sealing plate, forming a gap for guiding of cooling air. ...

Inventors: Tobias Buchal, Sascha Dungs, Winfried Esser, Birgit Grüger, Oliver Lüsebrink, Mirko Milazar, Nicolas Savilius, Oliver Schneider, Peter Schröder, Waldemar Socha
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120107136 - Class: 416 97 R (USPTO) - 05/03/12 - Class 416 

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120107136, Sealing plate and rotor blade system.

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This application is the US National Stage of International Application No. PCT/EP2010/053917, filed Mar. 25, 2010 and claims the benefit thereof. The International Application claims the benefits of European application No. 09004469.4 filed Mar. 27, 2009. All of the applications are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.


The invention refers to a sealing plate for forming a ring consisting of sealing plates for the rotor of a gas turbine, which sealing plate is formed principally from a multiplicity of metal sheets. In addition, the invention refers to a rotor blade system, especially for a gas turbine, having a number of rotor blades which are arranged annularly on a turbine disk, wherein a number of sealing plates are arranged on a side surface of the turbine disk. It furthermore refers to a gas turbine having such a rotor blade system.


Gas turbines are used in many fields for driving generators or driven machines. In this case, the energy content of a fuel is utilized for producing rotational movement of a turbine shaft. To this end, the fuel is combusted in a combustion chamber, wherein compressed air is supplied from an air compressor. The operating medium, under high pressure and at high temperature, which is produced in the combustion chamber as a result of the combustion of the fuel, is directed in this case through a turbine unit—which is connected downstream to the combustion chamber—where it expands, performing work.

For producing the rotational movement of the turbine shaft, in this case a number of rotor blades, which are customarily assembled into blade groups or blade rows, are arranged on this shaft. In this case, a turbine disk, on which the rotor blades are fastened by means of their blade root, are customarily provided for each turbine stage. For flow guiding of the operating medium in the turbine unit, moreover, stator blades which are connected to the turbine casing and assembled to form stator-blade rows, are customarily arranged between adjacent rotor blade rows.

The combustion chamber of the gas turbine can be constructed as a so-called annular combustion chamber in which a large number of burners, which are arranged around the turbine shaft in the circumferential direction, open into a common combustion chamber space which is enclosed by a high temperature-resistant surrounding wall. To this end, the combustion chamber is designed in its entirety as an annular structure. In addition to a single combustion chamber, provision may also be made for a multiplicity of combustion chambers.

Usually connected directly to the combustion chamber is a first stator blade row of a turbine unit, which together with the immediately subsequent rotor blade row, as seen in the flow direction of the operating medium, forms a first turbine stage of the turbine unit, to which further turbine stages are customarily connected downstream.

In the design of such gas turbines, in addition to the achievable power, a particularly high efficiency is customarily a design aim. An increase of the efficiency can be achieved in this case, for thermodynamic reasons, basically by an increase of the exit temperature at which working medium discharges from the combustion chamber and flows into the turbine unit. In this case, temperatures of about 1200° C. to 1500° C. are aimed at and also achieved for such gas turbines.

With such high temperatures of the operating medium, however, the components and parts which are exposed to this are subjected to high thermal loads. In order to protect the turbine disk and the turbine shaft against penetration of hot operating medium, provision is made on the turbine disks for sealing plates—as known from EP 1 944 472 A1, for example—which are attached in a circular encompassing manner on the turbine disk on the surfaces normal to the turbine axis in each case. In this case, provision is customarily made in each case for one sealing plate per turbine blade on each side of the turbine disk. These overlap in a shingle-like manner and customarily have a sealing wing which extends up to the adjacent stator blade in each case in such a way that penetration of hot operating medium in the direction of the turbine shaft is avoided.

The sealing plates, however, fulfill even further functions. On the one hand, they form the axial fixing of the turbine blades by means of corresponding fastening elements, and on the other hand, they seal not only the turbine disk against penetration of hot gas from outside but also avoid escape of cooling air which is guided inside the turbine disk and is customarily passed on for cooling of the turbine blades themselves.

Such sealing plates with integrated sealing wing are customarily produced by vacuum investment casting (for example in the lost-wax investment casting process). In this case, a certain overmeasure is to be provided in order to be able to compensate for process-induced dimensional inaccuracies. Contingent upon geometry—the sealing plates having wide, very thin regions and mass accumulations in other places—warping and a certain porosity, especially in the thin regions, cannot be avoided in the vacuum investment casting. On account of the requirement profile of the sealing plates, these, however, can frequently be produced from alloys which, near net shape, cannot be produced in a process other than in the described vacuum investment casting.

For this reason, such sealing plates, after casting, must frequently be compressed at high temperatures and high pressure by means of hot-isostatic pressing for eliminating porosity and finally brought to the finished contour by means of time-consuming mechanical machining processes. For one thing, the described process with hot-isostatic pressing, mechanical after-machining and material loss associated therewith, is very time-consuming and costly in this case, and for another thing, even after the after-machining uneven mass distribution may continue to exist which may later severely limit the function of the sealing plate during operation and may involve losses with regard to the efficiency of the gas turbine.

It is also known from GB 947,553 to secure the rotor blades of a gas turbine against an axial displacement by means of solid cover rings. In this case, obliquely set baffle plates with openings are fastened on the cover rings, which openings are to capture the cooling air which is provided in the space next to the disk and to direct the cooling air to the rotor blades by means of openings which are arranged in the cover rings. In the case of this design, however, cast cover rings are again necessary.



The invention is therefore based on the object of disclosing a sealing plate and a rotor blade system which, with a highest possible efficiency of a gas turbine, allows in each case a simplified construction at the same time.

This object is achieved according to the invention using a sealing plate according to the features of the independent claims.

The invention is based in this case on the consideration that a particularly simple producibility of the sealing plate would be achievable if the previously customary investment casting process with subsequent mechanical after-machining could be either simplified or completely replaced by another production process. In this case, casting processes other than the described vacuum investment casting are not a possibility on account of the selected materials for the sealing plates. Therefore, the sealing plate should not be produced in an archetypal process, such as casting, but in a forming process. In order to be able to realize the complex shape of the sealing plates during this, the sealing plates should be produced from a multiplicity of basic parts by means of forming. This can be achieved in a particularly simple manner by forming of prefabricated metal sheets, that is to say the sealing plate should be produced from a multiplicity of metal sheets. The sealing plate in this case comprises two metal sheets which are arranged a distance apart and parallel to the plane of the sealing plate. These form the respective end faces of the sealing plate and via the distance between the two metal sheets the thickness of the sealing plate can be accurately selected. In this case, a gap remains between the metal sheets and can be utilized for conducting cooling air and therefore for internal cooling of the sealing plate. On the one hand, a particularly simple construction of the sealing plate is therefore possible, and on the other hand, as a result of active component cooling, the sealing plate can stand up to the most adverse circumstances during operation so that particularly high temperatures during operation of the gas turbine become possible and therefore particularly high efficiency is achieved.

In an advantageous development, an intermediate metal sheet with a number of cutouts is arranged between the metal sheets in this case. Such an intermediate metal sheet stabilizes the connection between the metal sheets of the sealing plate which function as end faces and enables a precise, specific choice of the distance. As a result of the cutouts in the intermediate metal sheet, in this case a conducting of cooling air through the interior of the sealing plate still remains possible with the described advantages.

The respective metal sheet, on the side facing the middle of the turbine disk, advantageously has a bend in this case. Such a bend, which can be simply produced by forming, enables the sealing plate to be fixed in a groove provided for it on the side facing the middle of the turbine disk and so to ensure a secure retention of the sealing plate and of the rotor blades on the turbine disk. This offers the advantage that despite the altered construction of the sealing plate the previously used fastening devices on the turbine disk do not have to be modified and therefore a particularly simple construction of the rotor blade system with sealing plate and turbine disk is possible. In order to ensure a particularly simple feed and supply of the sealing plate with cooling air, the respective metal sheet advantageously has a number of cooling air holes. On the inlet side, the cooling air holes should be facing the turbine disk in this case so that a cooling air feed through the turbine disk into the sealing plate is possible, and on the outlet side provision should be made for cooling air holes which point towards adjacent components or attached metal sheets of the sealing plate, for example, so that active cooling of these components is also possible.

In order to safeguard the function of sealing wings for sealing the regions lying between two turbine disks against penetration of hot gas from the hot gas passage of the gas turbine, the sealing plate advantageously comprises a metal sheet which points from the plane of the sealing plate. This should reach up to the adjacent rotor blade row and so prevent penetration of hot gas in the direction of the turbine shaft in order to protect the components which are provided there.

In an advantageous development, the various metal sheets are welded and/or soldered to each other. As a result, a particularly simple construction of the sealing plate consisting of a multiplicity of metal sheets is possible.

The construction of the sealing plate which is achieved in this way, especially with a triple-layer design with two metal sheets forming the end faces and an intermediate metal sheet with cutouts for cooling air, is in a position to provide a tongue-in-groove connection for sealing a plurality of sealing plates, lying next to each other, in the circumferential direction. To this end, a groove and/or a tongue is advantageously arranged in the region of an edge of the respective sealing plate. Such a groove, in the case of a triple-layer design of the sealing plate in the style described above is simply possible by shortening the intermediate metal sheet on the edge or a tongue is possible by lengthening the intermediate metal sheet on the edge. As a result, a particularly good and simple to realize seal in the circumferential direction between a plurality of sealing plates is possible.

A gas turbine advantageously comprises such a rotor blade system and also a gas and steam turbine plant comprises a gas turbine with such a rotor blade system.

The advantages which are achieved using the invention are especially that as a result of the construction of the sealing plate by means of a multiplicity of metal sheets a particularly simple design and construction of the sealing plate become possible. The production costs and material costs are low in this case in comparison to other methods. As a result of the flexible material pairing, the material use and costs arising therefrom can be reduced. After-machining of the large plane surfaces—as is necessary in the case of the casting process—is not necessary when using preformed metal sheets, wherein a particularly good sealing effect of the sealing plate during operation is still achieved. As a result of this, and as a result of the active component cooling by means of conducting cooling air in the sealing plate, lower restrictions for the hot gas temperature in a gas turbine ensue and a higher efficiency can be achieved overall.

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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20120107136 A1
Publish Date
Document #
File Date
416 97 R
Other USPTO Classes
International Class

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