|Aeronautics patents - Monitor Patents|
USPTO Class 244 | Browse by Industry: Previous - Next | All
04/2009 | Recent | 13: Jun | May | Apr | Mar | Feb | Jan | 12: Dec | Nov | Oct | Sep | Aug | July | June | May | April | Mar | Feb | Jan | 11: Dec | Nov | Oct | Sep | Aug | Jul | Jun | May | Apr | Mar | Feb | Jan | 10: Dec | Nov | Oct | Sep | Aug | Jul | Jun | May | Apr | Mar | Feb | Jan | | 09: Dec | Nov | Oct | Sep | Aug | Jl | Jn | May | Apr | Mar | Fb | Jn | | 2008 | 2007 |
Aeronautics April category listing, related patent applications 04/09Below are recently published patent applications awaiting approval from the USPTO. Recent week's RSS XML file available below.
Listing for abstract view: USPTO application #, Title, Abstract excerpt,Patent Agent. Listing format for list view: USPTO National Class full category number, title of the patent application. 04/30/2009 > patent applications in patent subcategories. category listing, related patent applications
20090108125 - Systems and methods for control of engine exhaust flow: Coanda Effect and lift produced along a surface of an airfoil are increased by ducting compressed fluid from the engine to the surface of the airfoil. An engine produces exhaust gases that are predominantly directed toward an aft end of the aircraft by a cowling or other structure as an... Agent: Tung & Associates / Randy W. Tung, Esq.
20090108126 - High-security aircraft: The aircraft (10) comprises an elongated framework (26) provided with propelling means and direction-control planes. The framework is coupled to a pneumatic chamber (16) suited to be filled with lighter-than-air gas and comprising two tubular branches (12, 14) joined to form a V-shaped profile, with an aerodinamic-lift surface (22, 24)... Agent: Modiano & Associati
20090108127 - Method for fixing an engine strut to an airplane wing: The inventive fixing system comprises a front attachment (6), a rear attachment (7) and an intermediate attachment (8) connecting a strut (1) to a wing (2), wherein the lower fitting (17) of the rear attachment (7) is fixedly connected to the transversal rear face (1G) of said strut on the... Agent: Dickinson Wright PLLC James E. Ledbetter, Esq.
20090108128 - Ground support system: A ground support system configured to support servicing of aircraft may include a main body housing one or both of an engine and/or a blower, a control panel that is used to control operation of one or both of the engine and/or blower, and at least one acoustic wave engagement... Agent: Mcandrews Held & Malloy, Ltd
20090108129 - Jam tolerant electromechanical actuation systems and methods of operation: In a vehicle, having a fixed supporting structure and a load movable relative thereto, a jam tolerant actuating system, a method for controlling this system including: Locating a physical coupling/decoupling mechanism between the load and an actuator assembly as close a practicable to the load; constructing the coupling/uncoupling mechanism to... Agent: Don W. Bulson (park) Renner, Otto, Boisselle & Sklar, LLP
20090108130 - Jam tolerant electromechanical actuation systems and methods of operation: In a vehicle, having a fixed supporting structure and a load movable relative thereto, a jam tolerant actuating system, a method for controlling this system including: Locating a physical coupling/decoupling mechanism between the load and an actuator assembly as close a practicable to the load; constructing the coupling/uncoupling mechanism to... Agent: Don W. Bulson (park) Renner, Otto, Boisselle & Sklar, LLP
20090108131 - Retractable articulated landing gear: A landing gear for an aircraft, characterized by upper and lower pintle frame members (38, 40) being connected to a telescoping shock strut (14) in a non-rigid manner that tolerates twisting when reacting to torsional loads applied to the landing gear, and/or by a pitch trim actuator (30) that positions... Agent: Don W. Bulson (grco) Renner, Otto, Boisselle & Sklar, LLP
20090108132 - Seating apparatus: A seating apparatus, in particular, an aircraft seating apparatus, includes a seating component (10) and at least one fastener (14). The fastener (14) has at least one latch (16, 18, 20, 22), which is adapted to fix the seating component (10) to a corresponding support component (50, 52).... Agent: Posz Law Group, PLC
20090108133 - Split handle for aircraft door: A handle for use in operating a door of an aircraft. The handle is fixed to a shaft and rotates the shaft about an axis. The handle includes multiple separately movable sections, the sections arranged so that each section has a limited range of movement separate from the other. The... Agent: Drinker Biddle & Reath LLP Attn: Patent Docket Dept.
20090108134 - Icing protection system and method for enhancing heat transfer: An icing protection system and method for enhancing heat transfer includes a substrate having an inner wall, an outer wall and a thickness separating the inner wall and the outer wall. A metallic layer deposited on the inner wall of the substrate by an electric arc thermal spray deposition process... Agent: Adams Intellectual Property Law, P.A.
20090108135 - Inflatable wing flight vehicle: The invention is an aircraft having an inflatable wing connected to a base unit, with the inflatable wing inflated with a lifting gas such as helium. The inflatable wing has a series of cell structures, and may be configured with ballonets to selectively introduce and expel outside air within the... Agent: Law Office Of Richard B. Cates
20090108136 - Navigation body, navigation device, and space navigation device: The present invention provides a thrust generator capable of generating thrust without using reaction of a combustion product, and a navigation body utilizing the same. The thrust generator has a rotation axis, a plurality of tops arranged symmetrically around the rotation axis, and a motor device for rotating the tops... Agent: Reed Smith LLP
20090108137 - Pressure vessel having continuous sidewall: A spacecraft pressure vessel has a tub member. A sidewall member is coupled to the tub member so that a bottom section of the sidewall member extends from an attachment intersection with the tub member and away from the tub member. The bottom section of the sidewall member receives and... Agent: The Boeing Company C/o Weiss & Moy, P.C.
20090108139 - Catalyzed decomposing structural payload foam: A high energy, e.g., ultraviolet (UV), catalyzed decomposing foam encapsulating a payload to be boosted in space provides an ultra-light weight, adaptable means to facilitate survival of much lighter, smaller satellites and space hardware under boost environment. The decomposable foam is to contain multiple satellites within a booster payload in... Agent: David W. Collins-intellectual Property Law
20090108138 - Space object deployment system and method: Provided is a space object deployment system. Specifically, the system in at least one embodiment, includes at least one deployable object. A deployment chamber is paired with each deployable object, each chamber including: a base opposite from the deployable object; and a spring loaded countermass coupled to the base and... Agent: Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman LLP (raytheon Sas)
20090108140 - Checklist administration system for a vehicle: According to one embodiment, code embodied in a computer readable storage medium is configured to generate a checklist for a vehicle by receiving a measured value obtained from at least one sensor configured on the vehicle, setting a parameter value that is associated with the at least one sensor to... Agent: Baker Botts LLP
20090108141 - Method and apparatus for enhancing engine-powered lift in an aircraft: Lift produced by an airfoil of an aircraft is increased by suppressing fluid detachment from the surface of the airfoil. An engine cowling extends outwardly from the surface of the airfoil that has an exit plane configured for directing exhaust gases toward a rear of the aircraft. Fences extending outwardly... Agent: Tung & Associates / Randy W. Tung, Esq.
20090108142 - Aircraft wing with slotted high lift system: Typically the volume of at least one of the ridges is less than the 50% of the volume of a channel defined by that ridge; the thickness of the leading element at the base of at least one of the channels is less than the depth of the channel at... Agent: Nixon & Vanderhye, PC04/23/2009 > patent applications in patent subcategories. category listing, related patent applications
20090101752 - Locking assembly for rotary shafts: A locking assembly has a base and a rotary shaft which is capable of rotating relative to the base. The rotary shaft has a shaft body and a set of capture portions supported by the shaft body. The locking assembly further includes a set of detention mechanisms supported by the... Agent: Bainwood Huang & Associates LLC
20090101753 - Device for compensation of the tail rotor in a helicopter: According to the present invention, In case of tail rotor failure in a helicopter, pilot will activate Cockpit control unit which is installed in cockpit, wherein said unit contains activation switch and electronic circuits that automatically performs steps of: determining and releasing a predetermined pressurized gas from a capsule, wherein... Agent: Barry Choobin
20090101760 - Aircraft engine protection unit (a.e.p.u): My present invention relates to a Protective Screen specifically designed to be mounted, anchored or fitted at the front intake of a jet engine nacelle aircraft to prevent the ingestion of birds and other foreign airborne objects of substantial amount(s), size(s), and quantities from entering the engine. The external front... Agent: Maahnchooh Donald Mundingo Ghogomu
20090101754 - Aircraft nose gear control apparatus: The invention relates to an assembly for controlling the rotational degree of freedom for an aircraft landing gear wheel, which can advantageously be used to prevent damage to the aircraft during taxing. In a general embodiment, an upper connection arm is supported by the descending shaft of the landing gear... Agent: Wiley Rein LLP
20090101755 - System, method, and apparatus for leading edge structures and direct manufacturing thereof: Leading edge structures for high performance aircraft and the direct manufacture thereof are disclosed. Direct manufacturing technology is used to deposit leading edge structures directly from a digital model to form near-net shape products. This technique permits a wider range of materials to be utilized, such as casting alloys capable... Agent: Bracewell & Giuliani LLP
20090101756 - Monolithic self-stiffened panels: A composite panel having a first skin forming the outer wall of the panel, known as the lower face (1), and a second skin forming part of the inner wall of the panel. The second skin is formed hollow such as to produce an inner reinforcing frame (2) in the... Agent: Perman & Green
20090101757 - Architecture and method of constructing a geosynchronous earth orbit platform using solar electric propulsion: A space construction method and system transports construction materials, a propellant depot, solar electric propulsion (SEP) vehicles, and robotic equipment from Earth into a lower-Earth orbit. The SEP vehicles are used to transport payload between the lower-Earth orbit and a construction area in higher-Earth orbit, such as GEO. The robotic... Agent: Haverstock & Owens LLP
20090101758 - Formation flight device intended for a solar coronagraphy mission: The present invention relates to a device making it possible to study the solar corona on a space mission requiring the formation flight of two satellites: an occulting satellite (OCC), the role of which is to create an artificial eclipse of the sun from the point of view of a... Agent: Lowe Hauptman & Berner, LLP
20090101759 - Panel with impact protection membrane: An aircraft leading edge panel having an outer aerodynamic surface; and an inner surface carrying the elastomeric impact protection membrane. The membrane comprises a woven or knitted fabric which is impregnated with an elastomeric material. The membrane and the panel may be bonded by an adhesive or co-cured to bond... Agent: Lowe Hauptman Ham & Berner, LLP04/16/2009 > patent applications in patent subcategories. category listing, related patent applications
20090095837 - Device and method for a sight: A sight system for guiding a missile towards a moving target by use of a guidance beam that can be used for the missile to trail the target. A first viewing device receives visible light and/or a second viewing device receives non-visible light radiating from the target. The viewing device(s)... Agent: Venable LLP
20090095838 - Retractable lifting blades for aircraft: A rotor blade assembly for providing vertical lift to an aircraft, having a rotor head and a plurality of blades, with each blade attached to a mechanism such as a cam surface, whereby movement of the mechanism causes the radial distance between the distal tip of the attached blade and... Agent: Greenberg Traurig LLP (la)
20090095839 - Retraction cylinder and rotorcraft undercarriage furnished with such a retraction cylinder: A retraction cylinder (20) makes it possible to retract a leg (10) of a rotorcraft landing gear, the retraction cylinder (20) comprising a retraction chamber (33) and an extension chamber (34) separated by a head (26) of a piston (25), the piston (25) sliding in a cylindrical sheath (35). In... Agent: Young & Thompson
20090095840 - Process for repairing a damaged area of an aircraft fuselage: A process for cutting out a damaged area of an aircraft fuselage, in particular so as to repair the damaged area, includes in making at least one cut-out in the fuselage (20) so as to delimit a cut-out area (24) that encompasses the damaged area and that includes at least... Agent: Young & Thompson
20090095841 - Hinge cover integration into door seal edges: An aircraft door includes a seal that integrates a flexible silicone seal portion and a rigid blade seal portion into a single continuous seal around the mold line gap between the door and frame. The arrangement allows for the use of space saving piano hinges to mount the door. The... Agent: Hope Baldauff Hartman, LLC
20090095842 - Power distribution architecture for an ice protection system: An ice protection system for a vehicle is disclosed which includes a plurality of de-ice power distribution units positioned proximate to a leading edge surface of the vehicle that is susceptible to ice accretion, at least two anti-ice power distribution units located within the vehicle, spaced from the de-ice power... Agent: Edwards Angell Palmer & Dodge LLP
20090095843 - Enhanced ruddevator for improved air refueling boom flight control: In-flight fuel transfer from one aircraft to another aircraft or aerial refueling can extend the flight duration of a receiver aircraft and thereby increase its operational range and/or effectiveness by enabling it to fly farther or for longer duration without returning to the ground. Improved aerial fuel transfer is disclosed... Agent: Klein, O'neill & Singh, LLP
20090095844 - Cargo parachute release apparatus, system and method: A cargo parachute release apparatus comprising an assembly plate and a hinged member that is hinged to the assembly plate with a hinge pin. Parachute riser attachment components are positioned between the assembly plate and hinged member when the hinged member is in the closed position. An electronic package assembly... Agent: Hodgson Russ LLP The Guaranty Building
20090095845 - Cargo parachute release apparatus, system and method: A cargo parachute release apparatus comprising an assembly plate and a hinged member that is hinged to the assembly plate with a hinge pin. Parachute riser attachment components are positioned between the assembly plate and hinged member when the hinged member is in the closed position. An electronic package assembly... Agent: Hodgson Russ LLP The Guaranty Building04/09/2009 > patent applications in patent subcategories. category listing, related patent applications
20090090812 - Insulation of an aircraft fuselage structure: An insulating mat for the sound insulation of an aircraft fuselage structure that is composed of frames and stringers extending transverse to the frames, to a fastener means for fastening an insulating mat on an aircraft fuselage structure such that acoustic bridges are prevented. An insulating kit is also provided... Agent: Lerner, David, Littenberg, Krumholz & Mentlik
20090090809 - Method of increasing the range of a subcalibre shell and subcalibre shells with long range: The invention relates to a method for increasing the range of shells (1, 8, 13) charged with an explosive substance and other types of shell, which function as carriers of the one or other type of active payload. The method according to the invention thus provides an opportunity for increasing... Agent: Connolly Bove Lodge & Hutz LLP
20090090810 - Compact steering device for the landing gear of an aircraft: The invention relates to a steering device for the landing gear (1) of an aircraft, said steering device being characterised in that it comprises at least one means which is used to rotate (2, 3, 4, 5) the wheels (6) of the landing gear and is arranged along the strut... Agent: Perman & Green
20090090811 - Arrangement for mounting an engine on the airframe of an aircraft: Arrangement for mounting a propulsive system on an aircraft airframe 12 by means of an external strut 4 which connects the engine 1 with the airframe 12, said strut 4 comprising a plurality of spars 8 intruding into the airframe 12 and means 7, 9, 11 for attaching said spars... Agent: Ladas & Parry LLP
20090090817 - Aircraft configuration, gas turbine engine, controller and trim system for neutralizing pitching moments with power changes: An aircraft, gas turbine engine, controller and trim system for neutralizing pitching moments caused by power changes and consequent changes in engine thrust. Several expedients are disclosed, utilizing either thrust vectoring or automatic aircraft trim augmentation in response to thrust variations, made either by throttle setting changes caused by a... Agent: Canavan & Monka LLC
20090090813 - Method of dimensioning and producing stiffened structural components, use of structural condition sensors and an aircraft: The invention concerns a method of dimensioning and producing stiffened structural components (4) comprising at least one shell component (6) and at least one stiffening component (8) which can be connected thereto, in which the shell component (6) and the at least one stiffening component (8) is dimensioned on the... Agent: Bromberg & Sunstein LLP
20090090814 - Method of de-icing the leading edge of an aerodynamic surface and aircraft implementing such a method: According to the invention, on at least one of the faces (1E, 1I) of said leading edge (1), forward of the partition (3), an action is exerted on the fluid flow (EF) so as to cause the latter to switch from the laminar state (EFL) to the turbulent state (EFT)... Agent: Dickinson Wright PLLC James E. Ledbetter, Esq.
20090090815 - System and process for automatically controlling the flight of power wing airfoils: A system (1) is described for automatically controlling the flight of at least one power wing airfoil (2), comprising first detecting means (3) on board of such power wing airfoil (2) adapted to detect first pieces of information (3a) dealing with at least one position and one orientation in space... Agent: Sheldon Mak Rose & Anderson PC
20090090816 - Mechanisms and methods for providing rudder control assist during symmetrical and asymmetrical thrust conditions: Rudder assist mechanisms and methods are capable of being operably connected to an aircraft's rudder control system. The rudder assist mechanisms most preferably have over-the-center spring biasing functions so as to cause either substantially no spring force (i.e., when the linkage is over the spring-bias center) or substantially all spring... Agent: Nixon & Vanderhye, PC04/02/2009 > patent applications in patent subcategories. category listing, related patent applications
20090084888 - Steering system and method for a guided flying apparatus: A steering system for use in a traveling guided flying apparatus (10) and method for driving the steering system are provided. The system includes an outer housing (111), an inner housing (113) and a support fins (112) extending inwardly from the outer housing (111) and holding the inner housing (113)... Agent: Browdy And Neimark, P.l.l.c. 624 Ninth Street, Nw
20090084889 - Aircraft having a reduced acoustic signature: An aircraft the propulsive units of which include engines, and which is distinguished by reduced noise emissions, includes a wing structure fixed to an upper region of the fuselage, and a vertical tail system having at least two vertical stabilizers which are generally vertically fixed to the fuselage aftwardly of... Agent: Perman & Green
20090084890 - Aircraft: An aircraft, in particular a VTOL craft, comprises a fuselage supporting at least a pair of wings. According to the disclosure, several propeller devices are connected to the fuselage and optionally to the pair of wings. The propeller devices may be pivoted about pivot axes independently of each other. The... Agent: Ohlandt, Greeley, Ruggiero & Perle, LLP
20090084891 - De-rotation system suitable for use with a shaft fairing system: A de-rotation system includes a first ring gear defined about an axis of rotation, a second ring gear defined about the axis of rotation and a gear set in meshing engagement with the first ring gear and the second ring gear to control a position of a housing about the... Agent: Carlson, Gaskey, & Olds, P.C./sikorsky
20090084907 - Ground effect vanes arrangement: A vehicle, particularly a VTOL air vehicle, includes a duct carried by the vehicle frame with the longitudinal axis of the duct perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle frame; a propeller rotatably mounted within the duct about the longitudinal axis of the duct to force an ambient fluid... Agent: Nixon & Vanderhye, PC
20090084892 - Device and method for sealing and lighting a balloon: An apparatus for sealing and illuminating a balloon includes a housing for sealing insertion into a neck of a balloon. A flow path within the housing conducts an inflation gas from an inlet to an outlet of the housing, and a flow control system disposed in the flow path allows... Agent: Christine Q. Mcleod
20090084893 - Pylon for suspending an engine beneath an aircraft wing: A pylon (12) for suspending an engine (10) beneath an aircraft wing (14), capable of being attached by one end to a casing of the engine (10) and by another end to the wing, comprising at least one articulation actuated by a actuator (44) making it possible to change the... Agent: Oblon, Spivak, Mcclelland Maier & Neustadt, P.C.
20090084908 - Minimizing dynamic structural loads of an aircraft: Minimizing dynamic structural loads of an aircraft (2), introduced by an external excitation (1), which, comprises generating a signal (x) indicative of the external excitation (1); deriving signals (y) of pre-controlling for actuating control elements of the aircraft (2) from said excitation indicating signal (x) in accordance with a pre-controlling... Agent: Oblon, Spivak, Mcclelland Maier & Neustadt, P.C.
20090084894 - Landing gear: An aircraft landing gear is arranged such that in its deployed position it is configured to reduce, during the approach on landing, the noise generated by the interaction of the landing gear and the air flowing past the landing gear. Various means are described to reduce the amount of turbulent... Agent: Patterson, Thuente, Skaar & Christensen, P.A.
20090084895 - Aircraft skid shoes with wear-resistant cladding layers: Aircraft skid shoes are provided with wear-resistant cladding layers. Powders of hard particles and braze material are impregnated into at least one cloth which is applied to the wear surface of a skid shoe of a helicopter or other aircraft. The skid shoe and cloth are heated to a brazing... Agent: Kennametal Inc. Intellectual Property Department
20090084896 - Cabin air system for aviation electronics: A cabin air system for aviation electronics comprises a compressor, an air conditioner, a mix manifold, and an aviation electronics module. The compressor compresses ambient air, and the air conditioner cools the compressed ambient air to produce cabin air. The mix manifold delivers some of the cabin air to the... Agent: Kinney & Lange, P.A.
20090084897 - Seating system and a passenger accommodation unit for a vehicle: A passenger seat assembly for a vehicle, particularly an aircraft, which is adpated to provide self-contained, individual seating and sleeping accommodation for a passenger, said seating assembly includes a supporting structure (42) for supporting said assembly off the floor of a vehicle; one or more movable, passenger-bearing, structural components (71,72);... Agent: Klarquist Sparkman, LLP
20090084898 - Method and apparatus for holding parts during manufacturing processing: A method for processing parts. In one advantageous embodiment, a setoff set of studs are welded to a part to form a set of fixed studs. A set of tabs are attached to the set of fixed studs. The set of tabs are affixed to a manufacturing tool.... Agent: Duke W. Yee
20090084899 - Composite wing-body joint: Embodiments of integral composite panels and joints for composite structures are described In one implementation, an integrated panel spanning substantially the entire wingspan of an aircraft, includes at least a center portion and a pair of outwardly projecting wing portions. The portions may include a skin formed from successive layers... Agent: Hugh P. Gortler
20090084900 - Window element for insertion in a window cutout in an outer skin of an aircraft: A window element for insertion in a window cutout in an outer skin of an aircraft, with a window frame for accommodating a window package and a press-on frame. The window frame can be attached to the inside of the outer skin in the region of the window cutout and... Agent: Lerner, David, Littenberg, Krumholz & Mentlik
20090084901 - Pivotable pylon for external carriage of aircraft stores: A pivotable pylon for carrying stores, such as ordinance, sensors and pods external to an aircraft includes an elongated strongback coupled against an external surface of the aircraft and generally parallel to the longitudinal axis thereof. An elongated pivoting structure is pivotally coupled to the strongback for parallel pivotal movement... Agent: Macpherson Kwok Chen & Heid, LLP
20090084903 - Spacecraft having a magnetic space radiation shield: There is provided a radiation shield device for providing radiation protection to an area, such as a spacecraft including, for example, a manned vehicle. The radiation shield device comprises a magnetic field generator, such as a solenoid, of superconductive material that provides a magnetic field around the area to shield... Agent: Alston & Bird, LLP
20090084902 - Thermal protection system with staggered joints: The thermal protection system disclosed herein is suitable for use with a spacecraft such as a reentry module or vehicle, where the spacecraft has a convex surface to be protected. An embodiment of the thermal protection system includes a plurality of heat resistant panels, each having an outer surface configured... Agent: Ingrassia Fisher & Lorenz, P.C. (boeing)
20090084904 - Wingtip feathers, including paired, fixed feathers, and associated systems and methods: Wingtip feathers, including paired, fixed features, and associated systems and methods are disclosed. A method for designing an aircraft wing in accordance with a particular embodiment includes providing a geometry for a wing having an upper surface, a lower surface, and an aft-swept wing leading edge. The method can further... Agent: Perkins Coie LLP (boeing)
20090084905 - Aerodynamic flap of an aircraft having a device which influences the flap vortex: A high-lift flap of an aircraft is provided having a device for influencing the flap vortex as well as a device for influencing the flap vortex at the lateral edge of the aerodynamic high-lift flap, which can be achieved effectively and at low cost.... Agent: Gibson & Dernier L.L.P.
20090084906 - Dynamic bumps for drag reduction at transonic-supersonic speeds: A system for reducing overall drag of a mobile platform includes a surface on which an airflow forms a boundary layer and a generally normal shockwave. The airflow is at a first velocity that is one of transonic and supersonic. An oscillating jet injects and extracts a jet flow through... Agent: Harness Dickey & Pierce, PLCPrevious industry: Winding, tensioning, or guiding
Next industry: Wire fabrics and structure
RSS FEED for 20130613:
Integrate FreshPatents.com into your RSS reader/aggregator or website to track weekly updates.
For more info, read this article.
Thank you for viewing Aeronautics patents on the FreshPatents.com website. These are patent applications which have been filed in the United States. There are a variety ways to browse Aeronautics patent applications on our website including browsing by date, agent, inventor, and industry. If you are interested in receiving occasional emails regarding Aeronautics patents we recommend signing up for free keyword monitoring by email.
FreshPatents.com Support - Terms & Conditions
Results in 0.55079 seconds