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Liquid fuel compositions

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20140173972 patent thumbnailZoom

Liquid fuel compositions


The liquid fuel composition of the present invention provides benefits in terms of improved acceleration and/or power output of an internal combustion engine fuelled by said fuel as well as an increase in flame speed. (b) one or more organic sunscreen compounds. (a) a gasoline base fuel suitable for use in an internal combustion engine; and A liquid fuel composition containing
Related Terms: Internal Combustion Engine Combustion

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USPTO Applicaton #: #20140173972 - Class: 44384 (USPTO) -
Fuel And Related Compositions > Liquid Fuels (excluding Fuels That Are Exclusively Mixtures Of Liquid Hydrocarbons) >Organic Compound Containing -nc Or -cn Group



Inventors: Mark Lawrence Brewer, Michael William Howe

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20140173972, Liquid fuel compositions.

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This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/740,535, filed Dec. 21, 2012, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a liquid fuel composition, in particular to a liquid fuel composition having improved power and/or acceleration properties. The present invention also relates to a method of improving the power and/or acceleration properties of an internal combustion engine by fuelling the internal combustion engine with the liquid fuel composition described herein below.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Laminar burning velocity (also referred to as “flame speed”) is a fundamental combustion property of any fuel/air mixture. As taught in SAE 2012-01-1742 formulating gasoline fuel blends having faster burning velocities can be an effective strategy for enhancing engine and vehicle performance. Faster burning fuels can lead to a more optimum combustion phasing resulting in a more efficient energy transfer and hence a faster acceleration and better performance.

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

It has now been found that the use of organic sunscreen compounds in liquid fuel compositions can provide benefits in terms of increased flame speed, improved power output and improved acceleration performance.

In one embodiment, there is provided a liquid fuel composition comprising:

(a) a gasoline base fuel suitable for use in an internal combustion engine; and (b) one or more organic sunscreen compounds.

In another embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the power output of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below.

In yet another embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the acceleration of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below.

In yet another embodiment, there is provided a method of increasing the flame speed of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

OF THE INVENTION

In order to assist with the understanding of the invention several terms are defined herein.

The term “power output” as used herein refers to the amount of resistance power required to maintain a fixed speed at wide open throttle conditions in Chassis Dynomometer testing.

In one embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the power output of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described hereinbelow. In the context of this aspect of the invention, the term “improving” embraces any degree of improvement. The improvement may for instance be 0.05% or more, preferably 0.1% or more, more preferably 0.2% or more, even more preferably 0.5% or more, especially 1% or more, more especially 2% or more, even more especially 5% or more, of the power output of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreen compounds to it in accordance with the present invention. The improvement in power output may be at most 10% of the power output of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreens to it in accordance with the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention, the power output provided by a fuel composition may be determined in any known manner.

The term “acceleration” as used herein refers to the amount of time required for the engine to increase in speed between two fixed speed conditions in a given gear.

In one embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the acceleration of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described hereinbelow. In the context of this aspect of the invention, the term “improving” embraces any degree of improvement. The improvement may for instance be 0.05% or more, preferably 0.1% or more, more preferably 0.2% or more, even more preferably 0.5% or more, especially 1% or more, more especially 2% or more and even more especially 5% or more of the acceleration provided by an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreen compounds to it in accordance with the present invention. The improvement in acceleration may be at most 10% of the acceleration provided by an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreens to it in accordance with the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention, the power output and acceleration provided by a fuel composition may be determined in any known manner for instance using the standard test methods as set out in SAE Paper 2005-01-0239 and SAE Paper 2005-01-0244.

The term “flame speed” as used herein refers to laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocity (SL) is a fundamental property of a chemical component. It is defined as the rate (normal to the flame front, under laminar flow conditions) at which unburnt gas propagates to the flame front and reacts to form products.

In one embodiment, there is provided a method of increasing the flame speed of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below. In the context of this aspect of the invention, the term “increasing” embraces any degree of increase. The increase may for instance be 0.05% or more, preferably 0.1% or more, more preferably 1% or more, and especially 5% or more of the flame speed of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreen compounds to it in accordance with the present invention. The increase in flame speed may be at most 10% of the flame speed of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreens to it in accordance with the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention, the flame speed of a fuel composition may be determined in any known manner, for instance measurement of SL can be performed in a constant volume combustion chamber (spherical bomb), ref Gillespie, L. L., M.; Sheppard, C. G.; Wooley, R, Aspects of laminar and turbulent burning velocity relevant to spark ignition engines, Journal of the Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000 (2000-01-0192).

However, it should be appreciated that any measurable improvement in power output, acceleration and flame speed may provide a worthwhile advantage, depending on what other factors are considered important, e.g. availability, cost, safety and so on.

The liquid fuel composition of the present invention comprises a gasoline base fuel suitable for use in an internal combustion engine and one or more organic sunscreen compounds. Therefore the liquid fuel composition of the present invention is a gasoline composition.

There is no particular limitation on the type of organic sunscreen compound which can be used in the present invention as long as it is suitable for use in a gasoline composition.

A wide variety of conventional organic sunscreen actives are suitable for use herein. Sagarin, et al., at Chapter VIII, pages 189 et seq., of Cosmetics Science and Technology (1972), discloses numerous suitable actives. Particularly preferred hydrophobic organic sunscreen actives useful in the composition of the present invention include: (i) alkyl β,β-diphenylacrylate and/or alpha-cyano-beta,beta-diphenylacrylate derivatives; (ii) salicylic derivatives; (iii) cinnamic derivatives; (iv) dibenzoylmethane derivatives; (v) camphor derivatives; (vi) benzophenone derivatives; (vii) p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives; and (viii) phenalkyl benzoate derivatives; and mixtures thereof.

Preferred alpha-cyano-beta,beta-diphenylacrylate derivatives include ethyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, and mixtures thereof. More preferably the alpha-cyano-beta,beta-diphenylacrylate derivative is 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, of which the International Non Proprietary Name is Octocrylene. 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate is commercially available under the tradename Parsol 340® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred salicylate derivatives include ethylhexyl salicylate (octyl salicylate), triethanolamine salicylate, 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylsalicylate, homomethyl salicylate, and mixtures thereof. More preferably, the salicylate derivative is ethylhexyl salicylate. Ethylhexyl salicylate is commercially available under the tradename Parsol EHS® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred cinnamic derivatives are selected from octylmethoxy cinnamate, diethanolamine methoxycinnamate, and mixtures thereof. A particularly preferred cinnamic derivative for use herein is octylmethoxy cinnamate. Octylmethoxy cinnamate is commercially available under the tradename Parsol MCX® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred dibenzoylmethane derivatives for use herein are selected from butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, isopropyl dibenzoylmethane, and mixtures thereof. A particularly preferred dibenzoylmethane derivative for use herein is butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane. Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane is commercially available under the tradename Parsol 1789® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

A preferred camphor derivative for use herein is 4-methylbenzylidene camphor. 4-methylbenzylidene camphor is commercially available under the tradename Parsol 5000 ® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred benzophenone derivatives for use herein are selected from benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, benzophenone-5, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-7, benzophenone-8, benzophenone-9, benzophenone-10, benzophenone-11, benzophenone-12, and mixtures thereof. A particularly preferred benzophenone derivative for use herein is benzophenone-3. Benzophenone-3 is commercially available under the tradename Escalol 567® from Ashland Specialty Ingredients.

A preferred phenalkyl benzoate derivatives for use herein is phenethyl benzoate. Phenethyl benzoate is commercially available under the tradename X-tend 229® from Ashland Specialty Ingredients.

The total level of the one or more organic sunscreen compounds is preferably at most 2 wt %, by weight of the liquid fuel composition. The total level of the one or more organic sunscreen compounds is preferably at least 10 ppmw, by weight of the liquid fuel composition. The total level of the one or more organic sunscreen compositions is preferably in the range of from 1 wt % to 0.005 wt %, more preferably in the range of from 0.5 wt % to 0.01 wt %, even more preferably in the range of from 0.05 wt % to 0.01 wt %, by weight of the liquid fuel composition.

The organic sunscreen compound may be blended together with any other additives e.g. additive performance package(s) to produce an additive blend. The additive blend is then added to a base fuel to produce a liquid fuel composition. The amount of organic sunscreen in the additive blend is preferably in the range of from 0.1 to 99.8 wt %, more preferably in the range of from 5 to 50 wt %, by weight of the additive blend.

The amount of performance package(s) in the additive blend is preferably in the range of from 0.1 to 99.8 wt %, more preferably in the range of from 5 to 50 wt %, by weight of the additive blend.

Preferably, the amount of the performance package present in the liquid fuel composition of the present invention is in the range of 15 ppmw (parts per million by weight) to 10% wt, based on the overall weight of the liquid fuel composition. More preferably, the amount of the performance package present in the liquid fuel composition of the present invention additionally accords with one or more of the parameters (i) to (xv) listed below:

(i) at least 100 ppmw (ii) at least 200 ppmw (iii) at least 300 ppmw (iv) at least 400 ppmw (v) at least 500 ppmw (vi) at least 600 ppmw (vii) at least 700 ppmw (viii) at least 800 ppmw (ix) at least 900 ppmw (x) at least 1000 ppmw (xi) at least 2500 ppmw (xii) at most 5000 ppmw (xiii) at most 10000 ppmw (xiv) at most 2% wt. (xv) at most 5% wt.

In the liquid fuel compositions of the present invention, the gasoline may be any gasoline suitable for use in an internal combustion engine of the spark-ignition (petrol) type known in the art, including automotive engines as well as in other types of engine such as, for example, off road and aviation engines. The gasoline used as the base fuel in the liquid fuel composition of the present invention may conveniently also be referred to as ‘base gasoline’.

Gasolines typically comprise mixtures of hydrocarbons boiling in the range from 25 to 230° C. (EN-ISO 3405), the optimal ranges and distillation curves typically varying according to climate and season of the year. The hydrocarbons in a gasoline may be derived by any means known in the art, conveniently the hydrocarbons may be derived in any known manner from straight-run gasoline, synthetically-produced aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures, thermally or catalytically cracked hydrocarbons, hydro-cracked petroleum fractions, catalytically reformed hydrocarbons or mixtures of these.

The specific distillation curve, hydrocarbon composition, research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) of the gasoline are not critical.

Conveniently, the research octane number (RON) of the gasoline may be at least 80, for instance in the range of from 80 to 110, preferably the RON of the gasoline will be at least 90, for instance in the range of from 90 to 110, more preferably the RON of the gasoline will be at least 91, for instance in the range of from 91 to 105, even more preferably the RON of the gasoline will be at least 92, for instance in the range of from 92 to 103, even more preferably the RON of the gasoline will be at least 93, for instance in the range of from 93 to 102, and most preferably the RON of the gasoline will be at least 94, for instance in the range of from 94 to 100 (EN 25164); the motor octane number (MON) of the gasoline may conveniently be at least 70, for instance in the range of from 70 to 110, preferably the MON of the gasoline will be at least 75, for instance in the range of from 75 to 105, more preferably the MON of the gasoline will be at least 80, for instance in the range of from 80 to 100, most preferably the MON of the gasoline will be at least 82, for instance in the range of from 82 to 95 (EN 25163).

Typically, gasolines comprise components selected from one or more of the following groups; saturated hydrocarbons, olefinic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and oxygenated hydrocarbons. Conveniently, the gasoline may comprise a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons, olefinic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, and, optionally, oxygenated hydrocarbons.

Typically, the olefinic hydrocarbon content of the gasoline is in the range of from 0 to 40 percent by volume based on the gasoline (ASTM D1319); preferably, the olefinic hydrocarbon content of the gasoline is in the range of from 0 to 30 percent by volume based on the gasoline, more preferably, the olefinic hydrocarbon content of the gasoline is in the range of from 0 to 20 percent by volume based on the gasoline.

Typically, the aromatic hydrocarbon content of the gasoline is in the range of from 0 to 70 percent by volume based on the gasoline (ASTM D1319), for instance the aromatic hydrocarbon content of the gasoline is in the range of from 10 to 60 percent by volume based on the gasoline; preferably, the aromatic hydrocarbon content of the gasoline is in the range of from 0 to 50 percent by volume based on the gasoline, for instance the aromatic hydrocarbon content of the gasoline is in the range of from 10 to 50 percent by volume based on the gasoline.

The benzene content of the gasoline is at most 10 percent by volume, more preferably at most 5 percent by volume, especially at most 1 percent by volume based on the gasoline.

The gasoline preferably has a low or ultra low sulphur content, for instance at most 1000 ppmw (parts per million by weight), preferably no more than 500 ppmw, more preferably no more than 100, even more preferably no more than 50 and most preferably no more than even 10 ppmw.

The gasoline also preferably has a low total lead content, such as at most 0.005 g/l, most preferably being lead free—having no lead compounds added thereto (i.e. unleaded).

When the gasoline comprises oxygenated hydrocarbons, at least a portion of non-oxygenated hydrocarbons will be substituted for oxygenated hydrocarbons. The oxygen content of the gasoline may be up to 35 percent by weight (EN 1601) (e.g. ethanol per se) based on the gasoline. For example, the oxygen content of the gasoline may be up to 25 percent by weight, preferably up to 10 percent by weight. Conveniently, the oxygenate concentration will have a minimum concentration selected from any one of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 percent by weight, and a maximum concentration selected from any one of 5, 4.5, 4.0, 3.5, 3.0, and 2.7 percent by weight.

Examples of oxygenated hydrocarbons that may be incorporated into the gasoline include alcohols, ethers, esters, ketones, aldehydes, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, and oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds. Preferably, the oxygenated hydrocarbons that may be incorporated into the gasoline are selected from alcohols (such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, 2-propanol, butanol, tert-butanol, iso-butanol and 2-butanol), ethers (preferably ethers containing 5 or more carbon atoms per molecule, e.g., methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether) and esters (preferably esters containing 5 or more carbon atoms per molecule); a particularly preferred oxygenated hydrocarbon is ethanol.

When oxygenated hydrocarbons are present in the gasoline, the amount of oxygenated hydrocarbons in the gasoline may vary over a wide range. For example, gasolines comprising a major proportion of oxygenated hydrocarbons are currently commercially available in countries such as Brazil and U.S.A., e.g. ethanol per se and E85, as well as gasolines comprising a minor proportion of oxygenated hydrocarbons, e.g. E10 and E5. Therefore, the gasoline may contain up to 100 percent by volume oxygenated hydrocarbons. E100 fuels as used in Brazil are also included herein. Preferably, the amount of oxygenated hydrocarbons present in the gasoline is selected from one of the following amounts: up to 85 percent by volume; up to 70 percent by volume; up to 65 percent by volume; up to 30 percent by volume; up to 20 percent by volume; up to 15 percent by volume; and, up to 10 percent by volume, depending upon the desired final formulation of the gasoline. Conveniently, the gasoline may contain at least 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 percent by volume oxygenated hydrocarbons.

Examples of suitable gasolines include gasolines which have an olefinic hydrocarbon content of from 0 to 20 percent by volume (ASTM D1319), an oxygen content of from 0 to 5 percent by weight (EN 1601), an aromatic hydrocarbon content of from 0 to 50 percent by volume (ASTM D1319) and a benzene content of at most 1 percent by volume.

Also suitable for use herein are gasoline blending components which can be derived from a biological source. Examples of such gasoline blending components can be found in WO2009/077606, WO2010/028206, WO2010/000761, European patent application nos. 09160983.4, 09176879.6, 09180904.6, and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 61/312,307.

Whilst not critical to the present invention, the base gasoline or the gasoline composition of the present invention may conveniently include one or more optional fuel additives, in addition to the essential one or more organic sunscreen compounds mentioned above. The concentration and nature of the optional fuel additive(s) that may be included in the base gasoline or the gasoline composition of the present invention is not critical. Non-limiting examples of suitable types of fuel additives that can be included in the base gasoline or the gasoline composition of the present invention include anti-oxidants, corrosion inhibitors, detergents, dehazers, antiknock additives, metal deactivators, valve-seat recession protectant compounds, dyes, solvents, carrier fluids, diluents and markers. Examples of suitable such additives are described generally in U.S. Pat. No. 5,855,629.

Conveniently, the fuel additives can be blended with one or more solvents to form an additive concentrate, the additive concentrate can then be admixed with the base gasoline or the gasoline composition of the present invention.

The (active matter) concentration of any optional additives present in the base gasoline or the gasoline composition of the present invention is preferably up to 1 percent by weight, more preferably in the range from 5 to 2000 ppmw, advantageously in the range of from 300 to 1500 ppmw, such as from 300 to 1000 ppmw.

As stated above, the gasoline composition may also contain synthetic or mineral carrier oils and/or solvents.

Examples of suitable mineral carrier oils are fractions obtained in crude oil processing, such as brightstock or base oils having viscosities, for example, from the SN 500-2000 class; and also aromatic hydrocarbons, paraffinic hydrocarbons and alkoxyalkanols. Also useful as a mineral carrier oil is a fraction which is obtained in the refining of mineral oil and is known as “hydrocrack oil” (vacuum distillate cut having a boiling range of from about 360 to 500° C., obtainable from natural mineral oil which has been catalytically hydrogenated under high pressure and isomerized and also deparaffinized).

Examples of suitable synthetic carrier oils are: polyolefins (poly-alpha-olefins or poly (internal olefin)s), (poly)esters, (poly)alkoxylates, polyethers, aliphatic polyether amines, alkylphenol-started polyethers, alkylphenol-started polyether amines and carboxylic esters of long-chain alkanols.

Examples of suitable polyolefins are olefin polymers, in particular based on polybutene or polyisobutene (hydrogenated or nonhydrogenated).

Examples of suitable polyethers or polyetheramines are preferably compounds comprising polyoxy-C2-C4-alkylene moieties which are obtainable by reacting C2-C60-alkanols, C6-C30-alkanediols, mono- or di-C2-C30-alkylamines, C1-C30-alkylcyclohexanols or C1-C30-alkylphenols with from 1 to 30 mol of ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide and/or butylene oxide per hydroxyl group or amino group, and, in the case of the polyether amines, by subsequent reductive amination with ammonia, monoamines or polyamines. Such products are described in particular in EP-A-310 875, EP-A-356 725, EP-A-700 985 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,877,416. For example, the polyether amines used may be poly-C2-C6-alkylene oxide amines or functional derivatives thereof. Typical examples thereof are tridecanol butoxylates or isotridecanol butoxylates, isononylphenol butoxylates and also polyisobutenol butoxylates and propoxylates, and also the corresponding reaction products with ammonia.



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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20140173972 A1
Publish Date
06/26/2014
Document #
14134804
File Date
12/19/2013
USPTO Class
44384
Other USPTO Classes
44385, 44388, 44405, 44410, 44437, 558402, 560 71, 568325, 568327, 568333, 560 19, 560106
International Class
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Drawings
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