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Liquid fuel compositions

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Liquid fuel compositions


The liquid fuel composition of the present invention provides benefits in terms of improved acceleration and/or power output of an internal combustion engine fuelled by said fuel as well as an increase in flame speed. (b) one or more organic sunscreen compounds. (a) a gasoline base fuel suitable for use in an internal combustion engine; and A liquid fuel composition containing
Related Terms: Internal Combustion Engine Combustion

Browse recent Shell Oil Company patents - Houston, TX, US
USPTO Applicaton #: #20140173972 - Class: 44384 (USPTO) -
Fuel And Related Compositions > Liquid Fuels (excluding Fuels That Are Exclusively Mixtures Of Liquid Hydrocarbons) >Organic Compound Containing -nc Or -cn Group

Inventors: Mark Lawrence Brewer, Michael William Howe

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20140173972, Liquid fuel compositions.

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This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/740,535, filed Dec. 21, 2012, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to a liquid fuel composition, in particular to a liquid fuel composition having improved power and/or acceleration properties. The present invention also relates to a method of improving the power and/or acceleration properties of an internal combustion engine by fuelling the internal combustion engine with the liquid fuel composition described herein below.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Laminar burning velocity (also referred to as “flame speed”) is a fundamental combustion property of any fuel/air mixture. As taught in SAE 2012-01-1742 formulating gasoline fuel blends having faster burning velocities can be an effective strategy for enhancing engine and vehicle performance. Faster burning fuels can lead to a more optimum combustion phasing resulting in a more efficient energy transfer and hence a faster acceleration and better performance.

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

It has now been found that the use of organic sunscreen compounds in liquid fuel compositions can provide benefits in terms of increased flame speed, improved power output and improved acceleration performance.

In one embodiment, there is provided a liquid fuel composition comprising:

(a) a gasoline base fuel suitable for use in an internal combustion engine; and (b) one or more organic sunscreen compounds.

In another embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the power output of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below.

In yet another embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the acceleration of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below.

In yet another embodiment, there is provided a method of increasing the flame speed of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

OF THE INVENTION

In order to assist with the understanding of the invention several terms are defined herein.

The term “power output” as used herein refers to the amount of resistance power required to maintain a fixed speed at wide open throttle conditions in Chassis Dynomometer testing.

In one embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the power output of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described hereinbelow. In the context of this aspect of the invention, the term “improving” embraces any degree of improvement. The improvement may for instance be 0.05% or more, preferably 0.1% or more, more preferably 0.2% or more, even more preferably 0.5% or more, especially 1% or more, more especially 2% or more, even more especially 5% or more, of the power output of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreen compounds to it in accordance with the present invention. The improvement in power output may be at most 10% of the power output of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreens to it in accordance with the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention, the power output provided by a fuel composition may be determined in any known manner.

The term “acceleration” as used herein refers to the amount of time required for the engine to increase in speed between two fixed speed conditions in a given gear.

In one embodiment, there is provided a method of improving the acceleration of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described hereinbelow. In the context of this aspect of the invention, the term “improving” embraces any degree of improvement. The improvement may for instance be 0.05% or more, preferably 0.1% or more, more preferably 0.2% or more, even more preferably 0.5% or more, especially 1% or more, more especially 2% or more and even more especially 5% or more of the acceleration provided by an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreen compounds to it in accordance with the present invention. The improvement in acceleration may be at most 10% of the acceleration provided by an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreens to it in accordance with the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention, the power output and acceleration provided by a fuel composition may be determined in any known manner for instance using the standard test methods as set out in SAE Paper 2005-01-0239 and SAE Paper 2005-01-0244.

The term “flame speed” as used herein refers to laminar burning velocity. Laminar burning velocity (SL) is a fundamental property of a chemical component. It is defined as the rate (normal to the flame front, under laminar flow conditions) at which unburnt gas propagates to the flame front and reacts to form products.

In one embodiment, there is provided a method of increasing the flame speed of an internal combustion engine, said method comprising fuelling the internal combustion engine containing a lubricant with a liquid fuel composition described herein below. In the context of this aspect of the invention, the term “increasing” embraces any degree of increase. The increase may for instance be 0.05% or more, preferably 0.1% or more, more preferably 1% or more, and especially 5% or more of the flame speed of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreen compounds to it in accordance with the present invention. The increase in flame speed may be at most 10% of the flame speed of an analogous fuel formulation, prior to adding one or more organic sunscreens to it in accordance with the present invention.

In accordance with the present invention, the flame speed of a fuel composition may be determined in any known manner, for instance measurement of SL can be performed in a constant volume combustion chamber (spherical bomb), ref Gillespie, L. L., M.; Sheppard, C. G.; Wooley, R, Aspects of laminar and turbulent burning velocity relevant to spark ignition engines, Journal of the Society of Automotive Engineers, 2000 (2000-01-0192).

However, it should be appreciated that any measurable improvement in power output, acceleration and flame speed may provide a worthwhile advantage, depending on what other factors are considered important, e.g. availability, cost, safety and so on.

The liquid fuel composition of the present invention comprises a gasoline base fuel suitable for use in an internal combustion engine and one or more organic sunscreen compounds. Therefore the liquid fuel composition of the present invention is a gasoline composition.

There is no particular limitation on the type of organic sunscreen compound which can be used in the present invention as long as it is suitable for use in a gasoline composition.

A wide variety of conventional organic sunscreen actives are suitable for use herein. Sagarin, et al., at Chapter VIII, pages 189 et seq., of Cosmetics Science and Technology (1972), discloses numerous suitable actives. Particularly preferred hydrophobic organic sunscreen actives useful in the composition of the present invention include: (i) alkyl β,β-diphenylacrylate and/or alpha-cyano-beta,beta-diphenylacrylate derivatives; (ii) salicylic derivatives; (iii) cinnamic derivatives; (iv) dibenzoylmethane derivatives; (v) camphor derivatives; (vi) benzophenone derivatives; (vii) p-aminobenzoic acid derivatives; and (viii) phenalkyl benzoate derivatives; and mixtures thereof.

Preferred alpha-cyano-beta,beta-diphenylacrylate derivatives include ethyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, and mixtures thereof. More preferably the alpha-cyano-beta,beta-diphenylacrylate derivative is 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate, of which the International Non Proprietary Name is Octocrylene. 2-ethylhexyl 2-cyano-3,3-diphenylacrylate is commercially available under the tradename Parsol 340® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred salicylate derivatives include ethylhexyl salicylate (octyl salicylate), triethanolamine salicylate, 3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexylsalicylate, homomethyl salicylate, and mixtures thereof. More preferably, the salicylate derivative is ethylhexyl salicylate. Ethylhexyl salicylate is commercially available under the tradename Parsol EHS® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred cinnamic derivatives are selected from octylmethoxy cinnamate, diethanolamine methoxycinnamate, and mixtures thereof. A particularly preferred cinnamic derivative for use herein is octylmethoxy cinnamate. Octylmethoxy cinnamate is commercially available under the tradename Parsol MCX® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred dibenzoylmethane derivatives for use herein are selected from butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane, isopropyl dibenzoylmethane, and mixtures thereof. A particularly preferred dibenzoylmethane derivative for use herein is butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane. Butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane is commercially available under the tradename Parsol 1789® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

A preferred camphor derivative for use herein is 4-methylbenzylidene camphor. 4-methylbenzylidene camphor is commercially available under the tradename Parsol 5000 ® from DSM Nutritional Products, Inc.

Preferred benzophenone derivatives for use herein are selected from benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-4, benzophenone-5, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-7, benzophenone-8, benzophenone-9, benzophenone-10, benzophenone-11, benzophenone-12, and mixtures thereof. A particularly preferred benzophenone derivative for use herein is benzophenone-3. Benzophenone-3 is commercially available under the tradename Escalol 567® from Ashland Specialty Ingredients.

A preferred phenalkyl benzoate derivatives for use herein is phenethyl benzoate. Phenethyl benzoate is commercially available under the tradename X-tend 229® from Ashland Specialty Ingredients.

The total level of the one or more organic sunscreen compounds is preferably at most 2 wt %, by weight of the liquid fuel composition. The total level of the one or more organic sunscreen compounds is preferably at least 10 ppmw, by weight of the liquid fuel composition. The total level of the one or more organic sunscreen compositions is preferably in the range of from 1 wt % to 0.005 wt %, more preferably in the range of from 0.5 wt % to 0.01 wt %, even more preferably in the range of from 0.05 wt % to 0.01 wt %, by weight of the liquid fuel composition.

The organic sunscreen compound may be blended together with any other additives e.g. additive performance package(s) to produce an additive blend. The additive blend is then added to a base fuel to produce a liquid fuel composition. The amount of organic sunscreen in the additive blend is preferably in the range of from 0.1 to 99.8 wt %, more preferably in the range of from 5 to 50 wt %, by weight of the additive blend.

The amount of performance package(s) in the additive blend is preferably in the range of from 0.1 to 99.8 wt %, more preferably in the range of from 5 to 50 wt %, by weight of the additive blend.

Preferably, the amount of the performance package present in the liquid fuel composition of the present invention is in the range of 15 ppmw (parts per million by weight) to 10% wt, based on the overall weight of the liquid fuel composition. More preferably, the amount of the performance package present in the liquid fuel composition of the present invention additionally accords with one or more of the parameters (i) to (xv) listed below:

(i) at least 100 ppmw (ii) at least 200 ppmw (iii) at least 300 ppmw (iv) at least 400 ppmw (v) at least 500 ppmw (vi) at least 600 ppmw (vii) at least 700 ppmw

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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20140173972 A1
Publish Date
06/26/2014
Document #
14134804
File Date
12/19/2013
USPTO Class
44384
Other USPTO Classes
44385, 44388, 44405, 44410, 44437, 558402, 560 71, 568325, 568327, 568333, 560 19, 560106
International Class
/
Drawings
0


Internal Combustion Engine
Combustion


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