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Polyanion active materials and method of forming the same

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Polyanion active materials and method of forming the same


A method of forming a polyanion active material that includes providing a carbon source, providing a mobile ion source, providing an active metal material, providing a network material, providing a flux material, and mixing the various materials. In one aspect, the mixing step may include grinding or pulverizing materials to a uniform fine mixture. In one aspect, a ball mill may be utilized to mix the components. Following the mixing of the materials, the mixture is heated to a predetermined temperature in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to form a reaction product. In one aspect, the mixture is heated to a temperature above a melting temperature of the flux material. In this manner, the flux material provides a medium in which the various reactants may react to form the desired reaction product. Following the heating of the mixture the reaction product is washed, forming a carbon coated polyanion active material. Also disclosed is a polyanion active material that includes the in situ reaction product of a carbon source, mobile ion source, active metal material, network material, and a flux material wherein the polyanion active material includes a carbon coating formed thereon.
Related Terms: In Situ

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USPTO Applicaton #: #20130029227 - Class: 429221 (USPTO) - 01/31/13 - Class 429 
Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, And Process > Current Producing Cell, Elements, Subcombinations And Compositions For Use Therewith And Adjuncts >Electrode >Chemically Specified Inorganic Electrochemically Active Material Containing >Iron Component Is Active Material

Inventors: Wei Song, Masaki Matsui, Toshihiko Tani

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20130029227, Polyanion active materials and method of forming the same.

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FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to active materials for rechargeable batteries and methods of forming the same.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Generally, polyanion based active materials may contain mobile ions and a transition metal within a network. In comparison to metal oxide based materials, polyanion materials may provide active materials that have a higher cell voltage, lower cost, as well as increased stability. However, the electron conductivity of polyanion based materials is low due to the insulating properties of the polyanion based material.

There is therefore a need in the art for a polyanion based active material that has an increased electron conductivity and is easy to manufacture. There is also a need in the art for polyanion active materials that may be manufactured in a cost effective and simple method without the requirement for multiple procedures.

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

In one aspect, there is disclosed a method of forming a polyanion active material that includes providing a carbon source; providing a mobile ion source; providing an active metal material; providing a network material; providing a flux material; mixing the carbon source, mobile ion source, active metal material, flux material, and network material; and then heating the mixture to a predetermined temperature in a non-oxidizing atmosphere forming a reaction product, and washing the reaction product forming a carbon coated polyanion active material.

In another aspect, there is disclosed a polyanion active material that includes the in situ reaction product of a carbon source, mobile ion source, active metal material, network material, and a flux material wherein the polyanion active material includes a carbon coating formed thereon.

In a further aspect, there is disclosed a battery that includes an anode, an electrolyte, and a cathode including an active material having the in situ reaction product of a carbon source, mobile ion source, active metal material, network material, and a flux material wherein the polyanion active material includes a carbon coating formed thereon.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a SEM-EDS image of a reaction product of a magnesium manganese silicon oxide having a carbon coating detailed in Example 1; and

FIG. 2 is a XRD plot of the material produced in Example 1.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

In one aspect, there is disclosed a method of forming a polyanion active material. The polyanion active material may be used in a battery system. In one aspect, the active material may be used as a cathode active material in either lithium or magnesium based battery systems.

There is disclosed a method of forming a polyanion active material that includes providing a carbon source, providing a mobile ion source, providing an active metal material, providing a network material, providing a flux material, and mixing the various materials. In one aspect, the mixing step may include grinding or pulverizing materials to a uniform fine mixture. In one aspect, a ball mill may be utilized to mix the components.

Following the mixing of the materials, the mixture is heated to a predetermined temperature in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to form a reaction product. In one aspect, the mixture is heated to a temperature above a melting temperature of the flux material. In this manner, the flux material provides a medium in which the various reactants may react to form the desired reaction product. Following the heating of the mixture the reaction product is washed, forming a carbon coated polyanion active material.

Various carbon sources may be utilized in the method. For example, the carbon source may be selected from carbohydrates, aromatic hydrocarbons, organic compounds that include carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, as well as graphite.

Various mobile ion sources may be utilized in the method. Mobile ion sources may be selected based on the type of battery system being utilized. For example, lithium based mobile ion sources may be used for lithium batteries whereas magnesium ion sources may be utilized for magnesium batteries. In one aspect, the mobile ion source may include LiOH, LiCl, LiBr, LiI, LiNO3, Li2CO3, Li2SO4, Li3PO4, LiH2PO4, LiCOOCH3, MgO, Mg(OH)2, MgCl2, MgBr2, MgI2, Mg(NO3)2, MgCO3, MgSO4, Mg3(PO4)2, and Mg(COOCH3)2. Various other sources of mobile ions including lithium and magnesium ions may also be utilized.

The active metal material utilized in the method may be selected from transition metal compounds that include oxides, sulfates, and carbonates. Various transition metal compounds that are redox active may be utilized. For example, transition metal compounds including MnO, MnCO3, MnSO4, MnCl2, MnBr2, MnI2, Mn(COOCH3)2, FeSO4, FeCl2, FeBr2, FeI2, Fe(COOCH3)2, FeC2O4, FeC6H8O7, Fe(NO3)3, Cr2O3, Cr2(CO3)3, CrCI3, CrBr3, CrI3, V2O5, V2O3, NiO, NiCO3, NiCl2, NiBr2, NiI2, Ni(OH)2, Ni(NO3)2, Co3O4, CoCO3, CoCl2, CoBr2, CoI2, Co(OH)2 may be utilized as active materials.

The network material provides a rigid framework or network and may have the formula XOmn- where X is selected from phosphorus, silicon, molybdenum, beryllium, W, Ge, and sulfur. In one aspect, the network materials may include silicon dioxide and H3PO4.

As stated above, the flux material provides a solvent or medium in which the reactants dissolve and react to form a desired reaction product. In one aspect, the flux material may include chlorides, bromides, and iodides of alkaline and alkaline earth metals and mixtures thereof providing a molten salt based synthesis method. As stated above, the method includes heating the mixture to a predetermined temperature that is higher than the melting temperature of the flux materials. For example, if potassium chloride is utilized as the flux material, the heating temperature will need to be above the melting point of 760° centigrade for potassium chloride. As stated above, the molten flux material provides a medium in which the various reactants react and allows a carbon coating to be formed on an outer surface of the reaction product providing an improved electron conductivity of a polyanion active material. In one aspect, the washed reaction product may be in the form of crystals having an average diameter of from 15 nanometers to 50 micrometers.

There is also disclosed a polyanion active material that is the in situ reaction product of a carbon source, mobile ion source, active metal material, network material, and a flux material wherein the polyanion active material includes a carbon coating formed thereon. As previously stated above, the molten salt synthesis method provides an in situ method that does not require complicated and multiple procedures. The polyanion active material may be formed of various materials depending on the application of the active material. As stated above, various mobile ion sources as well as metal materials may be utilized for different battery applications. In one aspect, a battery may include an anode, an electrolyte, and a cathode separated from the anode by the electrolyte that includes an active material that is the in situ reaction product of a carbon source, mobile ion source, active metal material, network material, and a flux material where the polyanion active material includes a carbon coating formed thereon. Various battery systems including lithium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and calcium may be utilized. In such battery applications various mobile ions as well as redox active transition metals may be utilized.



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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20130029227 A1
Publish Date
01/31/2013
Document #
13191028
File Date
07/26/2011
USPTO Class
429221
Other USPTO Classes
2521821, 4292318, 429223, 429224, 4292315
International Class
/
Drawings
3


In Situ


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