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Radio model updating

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20130017842 patent thumbnailZoom

Radio model updating


The subject matter disclosed herein relates to systems, methods, apparatuses, devices, articles, and means for updating radio models. For certain example implementations, a method for one or more server devices may comprise receiving at one or more communication interfaces at least one measurement that corresponds to a position of a first mobile device within an indoor environment. At least one radio model that is stored in one or more memories may be updated based, at least in part, on the at least one measurement to produce at least one updated radio model. The at least one radio model and the at least one updated radio model may correspond to the indoor environment. The at least one updated radio model may be transmitted to enable a second mobile device to use the at least one updated radio model for positioning within the indoor environment. Other example implementations are described herein.
Related Terms: Server
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USPTO Applicaton #: #20130017842 - Class: 4554561 (USPTO) - 01/17/13 - Class 455 
Telecommunications > Radiotelephone System >Zoned Or Cellular Telephone System >Location Monitoring



Inventors: Rajarshi Gupta, Ayman Fawzy Naguib, Alok Aggarwal, Saumitra Mohan Das, Vinay Sridhara

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20130017842, Radio model updating.

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CLAIM OF PRIORITY UNDER 35 U.S.C. §119 and §120

This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/078,644, filed Apr. 1, 2011, and entitled “Radio Model Updating,” which claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119 to U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 61/320,966, filed 5 Apr. 2010, and entitled “Indoor Navigation with Server Interactions,” which are assigned to the assignee hereof and which are incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND

1. Field

The subject matter disclosed herein relates to radio model updating.

2. Information

Humanity has continually struggled to journey from one point to another. In ancient times, individuals in unfamiliar territory wandered around without guidance, or perhaps they risked asking local inhabitants for directions. People eventually developed maps to provide written guidance for reaching a desired destination. As literacy and the availability of paper became more common, more people gained the ability to use maps during their travels.

Maps began to be available in electronic form during the twentieth century. With the advent of the Internet, people could electronically access maps of many places from all over the globe. Web mapping services could also provide directions from point “A” to point “B”. These directions from web-based mapping services were relatively static. With the invention of satellite-positioning system (SPS) technology and ever-smaller electronic devices, however, so-called turn-by-turn directions could be provided dynamically as travelers journeyed toward their destination.

These electronic maps and web-based mapping services focus on providing directions in particular environments and certain situations. Unfortunately, there are other environments and situations for which they have not been designed. Consequently, there remain a number of areas in which navigational or other location-based services may be improved.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

Non-limiting and non-exhaustive aspects, features, etc. will be described with reference to the following figures, wherein like reference numerals may refer to like parts throughout the various figures.

FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram illustrating a mobile device within an example indoor environment in which the mobile device may be provided access to indoor environment characteristics via one or more server devices such that a location-based service may be provided according to an implementation.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of an example indoor environment, within which a mobile device may navigate, that may include multiple obstacles or a multitude of feasible positions for mobile devices according to an implementation.

FIG. 3 is a schematic block diagram illustrating example interactions among a mobile device and one or more server devices, which may include a crowdsourcing server device, according to an implementation.

FIG. 4 is a block diagram of example indoor environment characteristics, which may include a radio model, according to an implementation.

FIG. 5 is a schematic block diagram illustrating example interactions among multiple mobile devices and at least a crowdsourcing server device to provide an updated radio model according to an implementation.

FIG. 6 is a flow diagram illustrating an example method for one or more server devices to update a radio model according to an implementation.

FIG. 7 is a flow diagram illustrating an example method for a mobile device to use an updated radio model according to an implementation.

FIG. 8 is a flow diagram illustrating an example method for a mobile device to participate in updating a radio model according to an implementation.

FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of at least a portion of an indoor environment in which mobile devices may experience examples of incidents that apparently conflict with a graph, and at least one of these incidents may result in a graph updating operation.

FIG. 10A is a flow diagram illustrating an example method for a mobile device to participate in updating a graph according to an implementation.

FIG. 10B is a flow diagram illustrating an example method for a mobile device to use an updated graph according to an implementation.

FIG. 11 is a flow diagram illustrating an example method for one or more server devices to update a graph according to an implementation.

FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example server device, according to an implementation, that may implement one or more aspects of radio model updating in conjunction with an indoor environment.

FIG. 13 is a schematic diagram illustrating an example mobile device, according to an implementation, that may implement one or more aspects of radio model updating in conjunction with an indoor environment.

SUMMARY

For certain example implementations, a method for one or more server devices may comprise: receiving at one or more communication interfaces at least one measurement that corresponds to a position of a first mobile device within an indoor environment; updating at least one radio model that is stored in one or more memories based, at least in part, on the at least one measurement to produce at least one updated radio model, the at least one radio model and the at least one updated radio model corresponding to the indoor environment; and transmitting the at least one updated radio model to enable a second mobile device to use the at least one updated radio model for positioning within the indoor environment. For certain example implementations, a special purpose computing apparatus for updating a radio model may comprise: at least one memory to store instructions; and one or more processors to execute said instructions to: receive at least one measurement that corresponds to a position of a first mobile device within an indoor environment; update at least one radio model based, at least in part, on the at least one measurement to produce at least one updated radio model, the at least one radio model and the at least one updated radio model corresponding to the indoor environment; and transmit the at least one updated radio model to enable a second mobile device to use the at least one updated radio model for positioning within the indoor environment. For certain example implementations, a special purpose computing apparatus for updating a radio model may comprise: means for receiving at least one measurement that corresponds to a position of a first mobile device within an indoor environment; means for updating at least one radio model based, at least in part, on the at least one measurement to produce at least one updated radio model, the at least one radio model and the at least one updated radio model corresponding to the indoor environment; and means for transmitting the at least one updated radio model to enable a second mobile device to use the at least one updated radio model for positioning within the indoor environment. For certain example implementations, an article may comprise: at least one storage medium having stored thereon instructions executable by one or more processors to: receive via one or more communication interfaces at least one measurement that corresponds to a position of a first mobile device within an indoor environment; update at least one radio model based, at least in part, on the at least one measurement to produce at least one updated radio model, the at least one radio model and the at least one updated radio model corresponding to the indoor environment; and transmit the at least one updated radio model to enable a second mobile device to use the at least one updated radio model for positioning within the indoor environment. It should be appreciated, however, that these are merely example implementations and that other implementations are described herein and may be implemented without departing from claimed subject matter.

For certain example implementations, a method for a mobile device may comprise: wirelessly receiving from one or more server devices at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model is updated based, at least in part, on at least one measurement that corresponds to at least one position of one or more other mobile devices within an indoor environment; and performing a positioning operation for the mobile device within the indoor environment using the at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model corresponds to the indoor environment, and the at least one measurement is wirelessly received by the one or more server devices from the one or more other mobile devices. For certain example implementations, a mobile device for using an updated radio model may comprise: at least one memory to store instructions; and one or more processors to execute said instructions to: wirelessly receive from one or more server devices at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model is updated based, at least in part, on at least one measurement that corresponds to at least one position of one or more other mobile devices within an indoor environment; and perform a positioning operation for the mobile device within the indoor environment using the at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model corresponds to the indoor environment, and the at least one measurement is wirelessly received by the one or more server devices from the one or more other mobile devices. For certain example implementations, a mobile device for using an updated radio model may comprise: means for wirelessly receiving from one or more servers at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model is updated based, at least in part, on at least one measurement that corresponds to at least one position of one or more mobile devices within an indoor environment; and means for performing a positioning operation within the indoor environment using the at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model corresponds to the indoor environment, and the at least one measurement is wirelessly received by the one or more servers from the one or more mobile devices. For certain example implementations, an article may comprise: at least one storage medium having stored thereon instructions executable by one or more processors to: wirelessly receive from one or more server devices at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model is updated based, at least in part, on at least one measurement that corresponds to at least one position of one or more other mobile devices within an indoor environment; and perform a positioning operation for a particular mobile device within the indoor environment using the at least one updated radio model, wherein the at least one updated radio model corresponds to the indoor environment, and the at least one measurement is wirelessly received by the one or more server devices from the one or more other mobile devices. It should be appreciated, however, that these are merely example implementations and that other implementations are described herein and may be implemented without departing from claimed subject matter.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

Reference throughout this Specification to “a feature,” “one feature,” “an example,” “one example,” and so forth means that a particular feature, structure, characteristic, or aspect, etc. that is described in connection with a feature or example may be relevant to at least one feature or example of claimed subject matter. Thus, appearances of a phrase such as “in one example,” “for example,” “in one feature,” “a feature,” “a particular feature,” “in an example implementation,” or “for certain example implementations,” etc. in various places throughout this Specification are not necessarily all referring to the same feature, example, or example implementation. Furthermore, particular features, examples, structures, characteristics, or aspects, etc. may be combined in one or more example devices, example methods, example systems, or other example implementations.

Many indoor environments are sufficiently large, complex, or otherwise difficult to navigate so that navigational services may be beneficial, e.g., to a user of a mobile device. Hence, a user may want a navigational service, which may involve maps or directions, etc., or another location-based service (LBS) to be provided via a mobile device in an indoor area. Unfortunately, in contrast with large-scale, outdoor areas in which maps or mobile device locations may be made available via e.g. satellite imagery or satellite positioning system (SPS) technologies, indoor maps or mobile device locations are often not as readily available. Satellites cannot merely take a picture of interior features of a structure, and SPS signals may be too attenuated for use within a structure.

Location-based services may include positioning, personal vehicle/pedestrian navigation, real-time turn-by-turn directions, or location-based searching (e.g., searching of local points of interest), just to name a few examples. To provide location-based services indoors, one or more local coordinate systems may be established for particular indoor environments. An indoor environment may be referred to as a “location context.” A server device may store and associate identifiers, such as location context identifiers (LCIs), with specific “location contexts.” A location context may include locally-defined areas or other environments such as, for example, particular floors of buildings or other indoor areas that may not be mapped according to a global coordinate system. Location context identifiers may be used as handles for requesting additional information associated with a location context (e.g., for requesting additional information that is laid over or linked to a schematic map of an indoor environment). Such additional information may include, by way of example but not limitation, routes or paths over an indoor map, points of interest that are local or unique to certain location contexts, etc., just to name a couple of examples. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular coordinate system or systems or to any particular location context or identifier thereof. Moreover, a given indoor environment or local context may be associated with at least a portion of at least one local coordinate system, at least a portion of at least one global coordinate system, at least a portion of at least one local coordinate system that may be translated into one or more other local coordinate systems or global coordinate systems, or any combination thereof, etc., just to name a few examples.

A mobile device may use an identifier, such as a location context identifier, to obtain a schematic map of an indoor environment. Location-based data may be overlaid on a schematic map of an indoor environment. Additionally or alternatively, a mobile device may use an identifier to obtain information to be used in a particular application connected to a particular corresponding location context. For example, a mobile device may obtain information descriptive of a particular location context for use in an indoor pedestrian navigation application. Such information may include a schematic map that provides or enables a display of, for example, corridors, rooms, hallways, doors, entry ways, restrooms, or other points of interest of an indoor environment. For an example navigational application, such information may define a routing topology set out in a coordinate system that is local to a particular location context, as distinguishable from a global coordinate system. A mobile device may also use one or more identifiers to obtain point of interest (POI) information. POI information may include, by way of example only, information that describes or identifies particular locations or potential destinations of an indoor environment. Examples of POI information may include, but are not limited to, names of stores, locations of restrooms, names of office inhabitants, purposes of rooms, identifications of stairs or elevators, identifications of points of egress or ingress, or any combination thereof, etc. Use of information that is obtained in response to a request that specifies an identifier, such as a location context identifier, may depend, at least partially, on a position of a mobile device. Unfortunately for users located within indoor environments, as explained further below, performing a positioning operation to estimate a position of a mobile device may be more difficult indoors as compared to outdoors.

As indicated above, electronic mapping or other navigational services in outdoor environments may be effectuated using SPS data or using positioning data acquired via trilateration with multiple cellular base stations or similar fixed transmitting stations. With indoor environments, on the other hand, SPS signals may often be too weak or undetectable. Likewise, there may be too few received signals or an insufficient strength of signals received at an indoor location with regard to signals that are transmitted from terrestrial cellular base stations. Consequently, positioning strategies that are effective in outdoor environments may be inadequate for indoor environments. To combat these problems, indoor positioning for mobile devices may be effectuated at least partly by processing signals transmitted from wireless transmitter devices that are located within an indoor environment. Wireless transmitter devices may include, but are not limited to, wireless transmitters that comport with a Wi-Fi access point (AP) protocol, a Bluetooth protocol, a femtocell protocol, or any combination thereof, etc.

Unfortunately, there are other difficulties with indoor environments. For example, many indoor environments may include walls or other obstacles. Interior obstacles may introduce at least two different difficulties. First, obstacles can block, reflect, attenuate, or otherwise affect wireless transmissions within an indoor environment. Second, obstacles can limit where it is feasible for a mobile device to be located within an indoor environment or how a mobile device may move within an indoor environment. A schematic map may show, by way of example only, locations of obstacles and feasible positions for mobile devices or users of mobile devices within an indoor environment. A schematic map for an indoor environment may therefore be used to facilitate navigation within the indoor environment.

A radio model may additionally facilitate navigation by aiding, for example, a positioning operation of a mobile device within an indoor environment. A positioning operation for a mobile device may, for example, determine at least an estimated position of the mobile device, including, but by way of example only, with respect to a schematic map. By way of example but not limitation, a radio model may link stored patterns of values to positions within an indoor environment or to distances to a wireless transmitter device of an indoor environment. Stored value patterns may comprise or be derived from, by way of example but not limitation, at least one propagation parameter, at least one received signal strength indication/indicator (RSSI), at least one round trip time (RTT), at least one round trip delay (RTD), or any combination thereof, etc. For example, a radio model may include an RSSI value that corresponds to a particular position on a schematic map of an indoor environment. Or a radio model may include an RTT value that corresponds to a particular position on a schematic map of an indoor environment. Alternatively, a radio model may include a propagation parameter value that corresponds to a particular position on a schematic map or to a range to at least one wireless transmitter device of an indoor environment. A radio model may include values derived from any one or more of these example measurements or from other values, which may be predicted or modeled, for each of multiple positions of a schematic map of an indoor environment. Radio models may also be realized in alternative implementations without departing from claimed subject matter.

As noted above, indoor environments may have multiple obstacles that interfere with wireless transmissions or impede mobility. As a result, measurable values for a radio model may be difficult to ascertain, may fluctuate over relatively shorter time frames, may change gradually over relatively longer time frames, and so forth. Similarly, predicted values for a radio model may be difficult to model. Locations of interior obstacles or locations of wireless transmitter devices may also change from time to time. Consequently, radio models for indoor environments may be initially inaccurate or may become stale. Accurate or current radio models, on the other hand, may be used to improve positioning estimates for mobile devices within indoor environments.

Certain example implementations as described herein may relate generally to radio model updating, and more specifically, but by way of example but not limitation, to a radio model that is updated for one mobile device based, at least partly, on at least one measurement ascertained by another mobile device.

Accordingly, for certain example implementations, one or more server devices may receive at least one measurement that corresponds to a position of a first mobile device within an indoor environment. At least one radio model may be updated based, at least in part, on the at least one measurement to produce at least one updated radio model. The at least one radio model and the at least one updated radio model may correspond to the indoor environment. The at least one updated radio model may be transmitted to enable a second mobile device to use the at least one updated radio model for positioning within the indoor environment.

Also or alternatively, for certain example implementations, a mobile device may wirelessly receive from one or more server devices at least one updated radio model. The at least one updated radio model may be updated based, at least in part, on at least one measurement that corresponds to at least one position of one or more other mobile devices within an indoor environment. The at least one measurement may have been wirelessly received by the one or more server devices from the one or more other mobile devices. The mobile device may perform a positioning operation within the indoor environment using the at least one updated radio model, which may correspond to the indoor environment.

Alternatively or additionally to using an updated radio model, a mobile device may participate in updating a radio model. In example implementations, a mobile device may obtain one or more measurements that correspond to one or more positions of the mobile device within an indoor environment. The one or more measurements that correspond to the one or more positions of the mobile device may be transmitted to one or more server devices. The one or more server devices may be enabled to produce an updated radio model based, at least in part, on the one or more measurements that correspond to the one or more positions of the mobile device within the indoor environment. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any of these particular example implementations. Moreover, additional example radio model updating implementations are described further herein below.

FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram 100 illustrating a mobile device within an example indoor environment in which the mobile device may be provided access to indoor environment characteristics via one or more server devices such that a location-based service may be provided according to an implementation. As illustrated, schematic block diagram 100 may include a mobile device 102 that is located within an indoor environment 104. Schematic block diagram 100 may further include one or more server devices 106, indoor environment characteristics 108, at least one wireless transmitter device 110, and at least one location-based service 112. A wired communication link 114, a wireless communication link 116, and an arrow 118 are also shown in schematic block diagram 100.

For certain example implementations, a mobile device 102 may obtain at least a portion of indoor environment characteristics 108 from one or more server devices 106. Upon receipt of indoor environment characteristics 108, mobile device 102 may store indoor environment characteristics 108 in one or more memories for use in providing at least one location-based service 112, e.g., for a user of mobile device 102. A location-based service 112 may include, by way of example only, a positioning operation or a process that may be facilitated using a position resulting from a positioning operation, as is described further herein below.

Examples of mobile devices 102 may include, but are not limited to, a mobile station, a mobile phone, a cellular phone, a netbook, a laptop, a tablet computer, a slate computer, a personal digital assistant (PDA), a personal navigation device (PND), an entertainment appliance, an e-book reader, or some combination thereof, etc., just to name a few examples. Furthermore, a mobile device 102 may comprise any mobile device with wireless communication capabilities. Example realizations for a mobile device, as well as additional mobile device examples, are described herein below with particular reference to FIG. 13. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular type, size, category, capability, etc. of a mobile device.

In example implementations, indoor environment 104 may comprise one or more indoor areas such as office buildings, shopping malls, airports, apartment buildings, arenas, convention centers, auditoriums, amphitheatres, warehouses, classroom buildings, supermarkets, stadiums, a transit station terminal, a library, one or more floors thereof, interiors of other structures, or any combination thereof, just to name a few examples. In example implementations, indoor environment characteristics 108 may be descriptive of an indoor environment and may facilitate providing a location-based service 112, examples of which are described below. By way of example but not limitation, indoor environment characteristics 108 may include one or more of any of the following: a schematic map, a connectivity graph for a schematic map, a routing graph for a schematic map, annotation information for a schematic map, points of interest for an indoor environment, navigational instructions, at least one radio model, or any combination thereof, etc. Additional description and examples of indoor environment characteristics 108 are described herein below with particular reference to FIG. 4.

In example implementations, a wireless transmitter device 110 may comprise a Wi-Fi and/or WLAN AP, a femtocell nodal device, a WiMAX nodal device, a location beacon, a Bluetooth or other similarly short-ranged wireless node, or any combination thereof, etc., just to name a few examples. Wireless transmitter devices 110 may transmit signals including, but not limited to, those capable of identifying a particular wireless access device. A mobile device 102 may be within wireless communication range of one or more wireless transmitter devices 110 and thus in wireless communication with one or more wireless transmitter devices 110. A wireless transmitter device 110 may also be capable of receiving wireless signals or may comprise a wireless access device generally that is capable of transmitting and receiving wireless signals. A wireless transmitter device 110 may be located such that it is associated with and communicating within a single indoor environment 104 or multiple indoor environments 104. During wireless communication(s), a mobile device 102 may receive from one or more wireless transmitter devices 110 one or more wireless transmitter device identifiers that are respectively associated with the one or more wireless transmitter devices 110. For a Wi-Fi AP implementation of a wireless transmitter device 110, by way of example but not limitation, a wireless transmitter device identifier may comprise an AP medium access control identifier (MAC ID). Such a wireless transmitter device 110 may further interact with a mobile device 102 so as to provide other measurements or other detectable information, such as RTT measurements, RTD measurements, or RSSI measurements, etc., just to name a few examples.

As depicted in schematic block diagram 100, one or more server devices 106 may be located external to indoor environment 104. However, one or more server devices 106 may alternatively be located fully or partially internal to indoor environment 104 without departing from claimed subject matter. Similarly, although wireless transmitter device 110 is illustrated as being located internal to indoor environment 104, it may alternatively be located fully or partially external to indoor environment 104 without departing from claimed subject matter. Although only one server device 106 and wireless transmitter device 110 are explicitly shown in schematic block diagram 100, more than one of either or both may alternatively be involved in a given implementation without departing from claimed subject matter.

Also, although no particular mode of communication between mobile device 102 and one or more server devices 106 is connoted by arrow 118 interconnecting the two of them as explicitly depicted in schematic block diagram 100, it should be noted that communications between them may be made at least partially wirelessly. By way of example but not limitation, a communication between a mobile device 102 and one or more server devices 106 may be propagated wirelessly at least part of the way (e.g., via one or more wireless communication links 116 between mobile device 102 and a wireless transmitter device 110, a cellular base station, etc.) or may be propagated by wire at least part of the way (e.g., via one or more wired communication links 114 over one or more wired networks (not explicitly shown) such as an intranet, the Internet, a telephone network, etc.). As used herein, if a communication is “wirelessly received” or “wirelessly transmitted”, the term “wirelessly” is intended to connote that at least a portion of a communication path from a source to a destination (e.g., between two devices) is effectuated via at least one wireless communication link. A wireless communication link in this context may comprise a first or initiating communication link, a final or terminating communication link, any one or more intermediate communication links, any combination thereof, etc., just to name a few examples.

As described above, examples of location-based services 112 may include, but are not limited to, displaying a map, positioning, personal vehicle or pedestrian navigation, providing “static” directions, providing real-time turn-by-turn directions, location-based searching (e.g., searching of local points of interest), or any combination thereof, etc. Implementing a location-based service 112 may involve using or providing any one or more of the following: a schematic map, annotation information for a schematic map, POI information, a connectivity graph, a routing graph, turn-by-turn directional instructions, “static” directional instructions from one location to another location, or any combination thereof, etc.. Other examples of location-based services 112 may include, but are not limited to, routing, position filtering, incentives applications (e.g., offers based on location), or any combinations thereof, etc.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram 200 of an example indoor environment, within which a mobile device may navigate, that may include multiple obstacles or a multitude of feasible positions for mobile devices according to an implementation. As illustrated, schematic diagram 200 may depict an example indoor environment 104 including multiple obstacles 202 or multiple positions 204. Schematic diagram 200 may also illustrate one or more ranges 206. A mobile device 102 may wirelessly communicate or navigate within indoor environment 104. Positions 204 may comprise feasible positions at which a mobile device 102 may be located or to which a mobile device 102 may navigate. Indoor environment 104 may also include one or more wireless transmitter devices 110, such as wireless transmitter device 110a or wireless transmitter device 110b. Wireless signals (not explicitly shown in FIG. 2) may be emanating from wireless transmitter device 110a or wireless transmitter device 110b of indoor environment 104.

For certain example implementations, an indoor environment 104 may include one or more obstacles 202. Obstacles 202 may include, but are not limited to, walls, doors, railings, or columns; furniture or cubicle dividers; elevators or stairs; or any combination thereof; etc. Obstacles 202 may exist in the physical world and may have corresponding representation(s) included as part of a schematic map of indoor environment 104. Although claimed subject matter is not so limited, obstacles 202 may thus include building features or other objects that may restrict movement around an indoor environment. On the other hand, indoor environments may also have open areas such as lobbies, common areas, entryways, or rooms, etc., just to name a few examples. Accordingly, because paths of movement in such an indoor environment may be restricted in some areas (although they may also be unrestricted in other, open areas), such an indoor environment may be an example of a constrained environment.

Positions 204 may comprise locations of indoor environment 104. Positions 204 may have corresponding representation(s) included as part of a schematic map of indoor environment 104. Positions 204 may also have counterpart locations in the physical world. Positions 204 may be defined to any level of granularity or scale. For example, positions 204 may be one inch, one foot, or ten feet apart, just to name a few examples. Positions 204 may also be organized or arranged in any manner. By way of example only, positions 204 may be organized into a grid of points, which may be associated with a local or global coordinate system and laid over a floor plan or other schematic map of indoor environment 104 at substantially uniform spacing. A scale of a grid of points (e.g., an interval or distance between adjacent points) may be varied based, at least in part, on a desired level of precision for positioning or other location-based services, on an available amount of resources (e.g., memory, processing, etc.), on a size of a schematic map or rooms being covered, on any combination thereof, etc. In one particular implementation, grid points may be placed or positioned at sufficiently regular intervals so as to cover, for example, at least a portion of indoor environment 104. It should be noted that grid points may extend beyond indoor environment 104, for example, while still being within a targeted service or coverage area. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular implementation for positions 204.

A range 206 may comprise, by way of example only, a radial distance from a wireless transmitter device 110, with the radial distance capable of circumscribing at least a portion of a circle, such as an arc. At least one measured value (e.g., an RTT value, or an RTD value, etc.) by a mobile device 102 with respect to e.g. a wireless transmitter device 110b may enable a mobile device to estimate a range 206 between mobile device 102 and wireless transmitter device 110b, as is known in the art. An RTT may be derived from, for example, one or more communication exchanges between a mobile device 102 and one or more wireless transmitter devices 110 of indoor environment 104. An arc or circle that is specified by a range 206 may define a set of positions 204 at which a mobile device 102 is potentially located. However, a range between a mobile device and a wireless transmitter device may be estimated or used in different manners without departing from claimed subject matter.

As noted herein above, certain quantities that are measurable by a mobile device may vary at least partially in dependence on a position 204 at which a mobile device 102 is located. For example, a mobile device 102 that is located at a first position 204a may ascertain one e.g. RSSI or RTT value, but a mobile device 102 that is located at a second position 204b may ascertain another different RSSI or RTT value. For instance, a mobile device 102 at first position 204a may measure a relatively higher RSSI value as compared to an RSSI value measured by a mobile device 102 at second position 204b, e.g. with respect to wireless transmitter device 110a.

In certain example implementations, a radio model may comprise one or more positions 204 with at least a portion of positions 204 corresponding to at least one measurement made by a mobile device, at least after such a radio model is updated as described herein. Measurements may comprise, by way of example but not limitation, an RSSI value, an RTT value, an RTD value, a propagation parameter, a sensor value, or any combination thereof, etc. A radio model may cover at least a portion of a schematic map of an indoor environment 104 by comprising a grid of points laid over at least a portion of a schematic map, by linking to at least a portion of a schematic map, or any combination thereof, just to name a couple of examples. Examples of radio models are described further herein below with particular reference to FIG. 4.

FIG. 3 is a schematic block diagram 300 illustrating example interactions among a mobile device and one or more server devices, which may include a crowdsourcing server device, according to an implementation. As illustrated, schematic block diagram 300 may include at least one mobile device 102, one or more server devices 106, at least one venue 302, or at least one user 304. A mobile device 102 may interact with one or more server devices 106. A venue 302 may also interact with at least one server device 106.

For certain example implementations, one or more server devices 106 may be realized as multiple server devices 106. Examples of server devices 106 may include, but are not limited to, a map directory server device 106d, a map server device 106m, a crowdsourcing server device 106c, a POI server device 106p, or any combination thereof, etc. Example realizations for a server device, as well as additional server device examples, are described herein below with particular reference to FIG. 12. In example implementations, a system or an apparatus may comprise, by way of example but not limitation, a distributed system or a distributed apparatus that includes multiple server devices. Example interactions between mobile device 102 and at least one server device 106 that are shown in schematic block diagram 300 include interactions (1A), (1B), (2A), (2B), (2C), (3A), (3B), (3C), or (4). An example interaction (0) is also shown between venue 302 and map server device 106m.

Venue 302 may refer to an indoor environment where, e.g., indoor navigation service is deployed. A venue may refer to a physical place or locale that may be associated with the whereabouts of an object or thing (e.g., a user, or a mobile device, etc.) according to a desired or suitable point of reference represented, for example, via geographic coordinates (e.g., latitude, longitude, etc.), a street address, a governmental jurisdiction, a postal zip code, a name, or any combination thereof, etc. Additionally or alternatively, a venue may also include references to an altitude, a time, a direction, a distance, or any combination thereof, etc., just to illustrate other possible implementations. Of course, these are merely examples of venues, and claimed subject matter is not limited in these respects. Depending on an implementation, venues may comprise, for example, various partially or substantially enclosed areas associated with an indoor environment 104, as described herein above. A venue 302 may make indoor environment characteristics 108 available for access. For example, a venue 302 may provide a schematic map of its indoor environment, together with locations of wireless transmitter devices. An interaction (0) may occur offline, for instance. More specifically, at an example interaction (0), venue 302 may provide one or more schematic maps or other indoor environment characteristics to map server device 106m.

Examples of mobile device 102, which may interact with a user 304, are described herein above with particular reference to FIG. 1. Mobile device 102 may perform a positioning operation and determine a position of mobile device 102. A determined position may be displayed to user 304 in conjunction with at least a portion of a displayed schematic map. Mobile device 102 may interact with one or more functional server devices to gather parameters that may be used to provide a location-based service.

Map directory server device 106d may include a data structure, such as a database, that links or otherwise associates information indicative of an approximate location with one or more network locations storing a schematic map or other characteristics of an indoor environment that correspond to the approximate location. Map directory server device 106d may, for example, direct a mobile device 102 to a server device (e.g., a map server device 106m) that stores schematic maps or wireless transmitter device locations for a given venue 302. A map server device 106m may be located at a public uniform resource locator (URL) (e.g., that may be generally accessible to a mobile device), or it may be a location server that is deployed by a communication network operator (e.g., an enhanced serving mobile location center (E-SMLC)). However, a map directory server device 106d may be implemented differently without departing from claimed subject matter. In an example alternative, use of map directory server device 106d may be obviated by employing a text or menu-based mechanism on mobile device 102 that enables user 304 to identify a location that is sufficiently precise that a local or web-based application may direct mobile device 102 to a map server device 106m.

Map server device 106m may store characteristics for multiple indoor environments, e.g., in a database. For example, map server device 106m may host one or more schematic maps or other indoor environment characteristics for a venue 302. Mobile device 102 may therefore acquire indoor schematic maps from map server device 106m, e.g. after authentication. An interface between mobile devices and map server device 106m may be specified individually or standardized to enable a schematic map exchange. Map server device 106m may also provide location(s) of wireless transmitter devices for a venue 302. Alternatively, a separate server device, such as a server device dedicated to providing locations of wireless transmitter devices at venues, may provide locations of wireless transmitter devices to mobile devices. However, a map server device 106m may be implemented differently without departing from claimed subject matter.

Crowdsourcing server device 106c may include logic to update characteristics of an indoor environment based, at least in part, on at least one measurement received from one or more mobile devices. For example, crowdsourcing server device 106c may collect measurements from a number of mobile devices at a given venue 302. Measurements may be accumulated and used to update, e.g., radio models or probability maps. Crowdsourcing server device 106c may collect, by way of example only, measurements attained via active or passive communications with Wi-Fi or femtocell nodes or other available measurements, such as SPS readings, cell identifiers, sensor readings, or any combinations thereof, etc. If a radio model is updated, crowdsourcing server device 106c may send it to map server device 106m so that other mobile devices may benefit from the updated radio model after map server device 106m sends it to them. Alternatively, crowdsourcing server device 106c may communicate directly with one or more mobile devices and send an updated radio model to at least one mobile device. However, a crowdsourcing server device 106c may be implemented differently without departing from claimed subject matter.

POI server device 106p may include a data structure, such as a database, that links or otherwise associates an identifier (e.g., a location context identifier) of a venue 302 to POI information. POI information, examples of which are described herein above, may be descriptive of attributes of a given indoor environment. A POI server device 106p may therefore store POI information for one or more venues 302. An indoor position as estimated by a mobile device 102 may be used to trigger a location-based service. To facilitate provisioning a location-based service, a mobile device 102 may communicate with POI server device 106p to acquire POI information that is relevant to locations that are proximate to a current position, e.g., by including a location context identifier as well as an estimated current position in a request for POI information. However, a POI server device 106p may be implemented differently without departing from claimed subject matter.

For certain example implementations, communication scenarios may be expressed in terms of interactions between or among different entities illustrated in schematic block diagram 300. Example scenarios for interactions (1A), (1B), (2A), (2B), (2C), (3A), (3B), (3C), and (4) are described below. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular example scenarios or interactions thereof.

At example interaction (1A), mobile device 102 may send a request to map directory server device 106d that includes information indicative of an indoor environment 104 in which mobile device 102 is currently located. For example, at least one rough location or location hint may be sent from mobile device 102 to map directory server device 106d. Examples of location hints may include, but are not limited to, an identifier associated with a wireless transmitter device that is in wireless communication range, most-recently-received SPS coordinates, or any combination thereof, etc.

At example interaction (1B), map directory server device 106d may send information to mobile device 102 that enables mobile device 102 to retrieve at least a portion of indoor environment characteristics 108 (e.g., of FIGS. 1 and 4) for an indoor environment 104 (e.g., of FIGS. 1 and 2) of a venue 302. For example, map directory server device 106d may send a location context identifier to mobile device 102 in response to a request. By way of example only, a uniform resource locator (URL), a universal resource indicator (URI), or a combination thereof, etc. that identifies a server or a location on a server device (e.g., map server device 106m, a location on map server device 106m, or a combination thereof, etc.) having indoor environment characteristics may be sent to mobile device 102 from map directory server device 106d. Additionally or alternatively, a local wireless transmitter device may broadcast a URL or a URI, or a user 304 of mobile device 102 may search for a URL or a URI via an application or web interface.

At example interaction (2A), mobile device 102 may send a request for indoor environment characteristics to map server device 106m using e.g. an identifier, such as a URL or URI that is received from a map directory server device 106d with interaction (1B). At example interaction (2B), map server device 106m may send at least a schematic map of a venue 302 to mobile device 102 responsive to a URL, URI, or other information that indicates a particular indoor environment of venue 302. Map server device 106m may also send locations of wireless transmitter devices to mobile device 102 separately or along with a schematic map.

At example interaction (2C), map server device 106m may send additional indoor environment characteristics to mobile device 102 to facilitate navigation or another location-based service. By way of example only, at least one radio model may be sent from map server device 106m to mobile device 102. Radio models are described further herein with particular reference to FIGS. 2 and 4.

At example interaction (3A), crowdsourced information may be sent from mobile device 102 to crowdsourcing server device 106c. For example, one or more measurements ascertained by a mobile device 102 may be sent. Additionally, at least one measurement along with a position of a mobile device 102 at which the at least one measurement was ascertained may be sent from mobile device 102 to crowdsourcing server device 106c. A measurement may further be sent from mobile device 102 in conjunction with a location context identifier of an indoor environment 104 of a venue 302. Crowdsourcing server device 106c may use one or more measurements received from one or more mobile devices 102 to update a radio model with additional or more current information. Example approaches to updating radio models are described herein below with particular reference to FIG. 6.

At example interaction (3B) or (3C), crowdsourcing server device 106c may disseminate an updated radio model. For example, crowdsourcing server device 106c may transmit an updated radio model to a mobile device 102 at interaction (3B). A mobile device 102 that receives an updated radio model may be a mobile device that provided at least one measurement on which a radio model updating was based or may be a different mobile device. Additionally or alternatively, crowdsourcing server device 106c may transmit an updated radio model to a map server device 106m at interaction (3C). Consequently, map server device 106m may provide an updated radio model to mobile devices thereafter (e.g., as part of an interaction (2C)). An updated radio model may be transmitted from crowdsourcing server device 106c in conjunction with e.g. a location context identifier of an indoor environment 104 of a venue 302.

At example interaction (4), a mobile device 102 may retrieve POI information from a POI server device 106p. For example, an application on a mobile device 102 may access POI server device 106p to request POI information for an indoor environment 104 of a venue 302. A request for POI information may also include a current estimated position.

As indicated above, one or more of map directory server device 106d, map server device 106m, crowdsourcing server device 106c, or POI server device 106p may be realized separately or jointly on one or more server devices. Furthermore, map directory server device 106d, map server device 106m, crowdsourcing server device 106c, or POI server device 106p, as well as functionalities thereof, may be owned, operated, or managed, etc. by a single entity or by multiple entities. By way of example only, an operator of a crowdsourcing server device 106c may be separate from or the same as an operator of map server device 106m. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular arrangement, ownership, or management of one or more server devices 106.

FIG. 4 is a block diagram 400 of example indoor environment characteristics, which may include a radio model, according to an implementation. As illustrated, indoor environment characteristics 108 may include, by way of example but not limitation, at least one schematic map 402, at least one radio model 404, at least one probability map 406, at least one graph 408, or any combination thereof, etc. As described herein above with particular reference to FIG. 1, indoor environment characteristics 108 may correspond to at least one indoor environment 104. Although shown separately in FIG. 4, one or more of schematic map 402, radio model 404, one probability map 406, or graph 408, etc. may alternatively be realized in another form, such as an integrated, joint, overlapping, or any combination thereof, etc. form.

For certain example implementations, schematic map 402 may comprise information descriptive of a layout or physical organization of at least one indoor environment 104. For example, schematic map 402 may indicate locations of walls, rooms, doors, hallways, dividers, railings, or portals between floors, etc. Indoor environment characteristics 108 may further include a graph 408. For certain example implementations, a graph 408 may comprise multiple nodes that are interconnected by edges. To create a graph 408, a grid of points may be overlaid on a schematic map of an indoor environment and lines interconnecting the points may be drawn, by way of example only. A connectivity graph implementation of a graph 408 may be created, for example, by limiting interconnecting lines to those lines that are capable of extending from one point to another point without crossing an obstacle, such as an impervious building feature (e.g., a wall). A routing graph implementation of a graph 408 may comprise a connectivity graph that includes additional map information corresponding to indoor environment 104 so as to facilitate a determination of a route from one point to another point of indoor environment 104.

A connectivity graph or a routing graph may be linked to or otherwise associated with annotation information (not separately shown). A connectivity graph, a routing graph, or annotation information may be included as part of, may be linked to, or may otherwise be associated with a schematic map 402. Annotation information may comprise POI information, as described herein above, or other information descriptive of attributes of specific locations or aspects of a schematic map 402 or a physical indoor environment to which it corresponds. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular example implementation of a schematic map, a graph, or POI information, etc.

A connectivity graph, a routing graph, or annotation information may be used to provide navigation services, such as positioning, providing static directions, providing turn-by-turn directions, or any combination thereof, etc. A navigation service may facilitate travel from a point “A” to a point “B” of e.g. an indoor environment using, for example, a routing graph. A routing graph may be descriptive of feasible areas of a given schematic map and indicate how traversal is possible from one position to another position. For a given indoor environment, a routing graph may comprise a set of nodes and edges that depict feasible areas and traversable paths from one point in an indoor environment to another point. A traversable path may comprise, by way of example but not limitation, a path between any two points that is not blocked by a wall or other obstacle. By way of example but not limitation, annotations may be associated with particular portion(s) of a routing graph. A routing graph may be used to plot a path from one point to another point, including from one annotated area to another annotated area.

For certain example implementations, at least one graph 408 may be updated using one or more crowdsourcing techniques as described herein. In an example implementation, a crowdsourcing server device 106c may update a connectivity or routing graph based, at least in part, a position of a mobile device or at least one measurement that is made with regard to a position of the mobile device. For instance, there may be a door in a wall that is not shown in a schematic map. A door that is not shown in a map is likely not reflected in a corresponding connectivity or routing graph. By observing mobile device(s) of users that appear to move through a wall, a crowdsourcing server device 106c may infer or conclude that a door is actually present there in the wall. Consequently, a crowdsourcing server device 106c may update (e.g., modify) a connectivity graph or a routing graph. A crowdsourcing server device 106c may also update a schematic map 402, a probability map 406, or any combination thereof, etc. in response to such a conclusion. Example approaches to updating radio models or graphs with regard to crowdsourcing techniques are described herein below with particular reference to FIG. 5. Example approaches to updating at least graphs with regard to crowdsourcing techniques are described herein below with particular reference to FIGS. 9-11.

A probability map 406 may comprise one or more likelihood values that correspond to one or more positions of an indoor environment. For example, at least one likelihood value may correspond to one or more positions 204 of an indoor environment 104 (e.g., of FIG. 2). A probability distribution or density may, for example, indicate one or more likelihoods of being in a particular state given a previous state. In one particular example, such a state may be defined at least in part by location and velocity (e.g., a speed and direction). A probability distribution or density may be used to determine likelihood values. A likelihood value may express a likelihood, e.g. in probabilistic terms, that a mobile device 102 is located at or is to transition to a given position 204 based on parameters corresponding to mobile device 102 for at least one prior epoch (e.g., at least an immediately prior epoch). Such parameters may characterize position, movement, etc. of a mobile device at an instantaneous moment or over an elapsed time period. Examples of parameters characterizing position or movement of a mobile device may include, but are not limited to, an estimated position, a speed, a direction, a trajectory over an elapsed time period, or any combination thereof, etc. By way of example only, a probability map may correspond to an indoor environment and include multiple indications of likelihoods of mobile devices moving to or being located at various positions of the indoor environment based on a movement or location history of a mobile device.

A mobile device 102 may use likelihood values of a probability map 406, by way of example but not limitation, to establish or adjust a position fix. For example, if other positioning techniques or measured values result in a set of likely positions, the set of likely positions may be limited by identifying one or more positions in the set of likely positions having greater likelihood value(s) based at least in part on a probability map 406 as compared to one or more other positions in the set of likely positions. For instance, a mobile device may consider a position, a direction, or a speed at a previous moment (e.g., from a previous state) in conjunction with probability map 406 to determine one or more positions at which the mobile device is more probably positioned at a current moment (e.g., at a current state). These more probable positions that are determined at least partly based on probability map 406 may be used to limit the set of likely positions of the mobile device. Probability map 406 may include a map of an indoor environment 104 to which it corresponds. Additionally or alternatively, probability map 406 may reference positions 204 that are defined or otherwise specified in a map that is included as part of, e.g., schematic map 402. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular implementation of a probability map.

Using instantaneous positions or tracked movement parameters of mobile devices, which may be received directly from such mobile devices, a crowdsourcing server device 106c (e.g., of FIGS. 3 and 6) may update a probability map 406 to produce an updated probability map (not explicitly shown). For example, a crowdsourcing server device 106c may adjust likelihood values of a probability map 406 based on where mobile devices are positioned over time or how mobile devices move (e.g., how positions, velocities, trajectories, or combinations thereof, etc. change over time) in an indoor environment. Mobile device positions may be determined, for example, using known trilateration-based techniques or using a radio model, such as radio model 404. With trilateration, for instance, a mobile device may use a mathematical formula or a look-up table that may define a functional relationship between received wireless signal characteristics (e.g., RSSI, RTT, RTD, etc.) and a range to one or more wireless transmitter devices. An updated probability map may be disseminated by crowdsourcing server device 106c directly to mobile devices 102 or indirectly to mobile devices 102 by transmitting an updated probability map to a map server device 106m. Example approaches to updating radio models or probability maps with regard to crowdsourcing techniques are described herein below with particular reference to FIG. 6.

A radio model 404 may comprise one or more values that are derived from at least one measurement at an indoor environment. A measurement may correspond to at least one position of an indoor environment. For example, a measurement may be ascertained by a mobile device at a corresponding position of an indoor environment. Additionally or alternatively, a measurement may correspond to one or more positions located at a given range (e.g. radial distance) from at least one wireless transmitter device. Although multiple example implementations of radio models 404 are described below, claimed subject matter is not limited to any of these particular examples. Instead, various implementations may include more, fewer, or different aspects or features than those described below. For certain example implementations, a radio model 404 may comprise one or more values, including but not limited to patterns of values, that are derived from at least one measurement obtained at an indoor environment. A radio model 404 may therefore represent, or include values characteristic of, a radio environment for an indoor environment 104 to which it corresponds.

In an example implementation for radio models 404, a radio model may comprise at least one expected value for measurements at multiple positions of an indoor environment. By way of example only, such positions may be organized or stored as a grid covering at least a portion of an indoor environment. For each grid point, at least one expected measurement value may be stored. By way of example only, multiple expected measurement values forming a pattern of expected values may be stored for each grid point. Expected measurement values may correspond to, for example, RSSI measurements, RTT measurements, RTD measurements, sensor value measurements, or any combination thereof, etc. An expected measurement value may be derived from one or more actual measurements. Alternatively, an expected measurement value may be derived at least initially by simulation using, for example, a ray tracing or similar technique that predicts signaling, timing, or other characteristics of wireless signals within a modeled indoor environment. An expected measurement value may comprise, for example, an expected value plus some range (e.g., a statistical range, a probabilistic range, an error range, or any combination thereof, etc.) around the expected value that is derived from one or more actual measurements at multiple grid points. For instance, an expected measurement value may comprise a mean plus a standard deviation. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to these particular examples for expected measurement values.

Expected measurement values for an example radio model 404 may be stored in a data structure for use by a mobile device in attaining or fine tuning a position fix within an indoor environment. In an example positioning operation, a mobile device may ascertain one or more radio measurements (e.g., of RTT, RTD, RSSI, or sensor values, etc.). One or more ascertained radio measurements may be compared to values, including value patterns, in a data structure of a radio model 404. Using one or more comparisons or a pattern matching algorithm, for example, a mobile device may determine expected values in a data structure of a radio model 404 that match one or more ascertained radio measurements. A position associated with the matched values in the data structure may be determined to be an estimated position of the mobile device within an indoor environment.

By way of example only, a radio model 404 may be considered to comprise a map of values derivable from measurements if such values are organized in accordance with positions of an indoor environment (e.g., organized into a grid of points or the like). Hence, a radio model 404 may comprise an RSS map, an RTT map, an RTD map, a sensor value map, or any combination thereof, etc. A radio model 404 may therefore include, by way of example but not limitation, a map of an indoor environment 104 to which it corresponds. Additionally or alternatively, a radio model 404 may reference positions 204 that are defined or otherwise specified in a map that exists separately (e.g., that is stored or is transmitted, etc. separately), such as a schematic map 402. However, claimed subject matter is not limited to any particular organization or arrangement for a radio model 404.

In an example implementation of a radio model 404, an RSS map may comprise values that are derived from at least one RSS measurement for one or more positions of a corresponding indoor environment. An RSS measurement value may be ascertained (e.g., made, or taken, etc.) by a mobile device by, for example, measuring a strength of a wireless signal received from a wireless transmitter device. In an example implementation of a radio model 404, an RTT map may comprise values that are derived from at least one RTT measurement for one or more positions of a corresponding indoor environment. An RTT measurement value may be ascertained (e.g., made, or taken, etc.) by a mobile device by, for example, measuring a time for a wireless signal to be transmitted from the mobile device and a companion wireless signal from a wireless transmitter device to be received back at the mobile device, or vice versa.

In an example implementation of indoor environment characteristics 108, a radio model 404 or a separate sensor model (not explicitly shown) may comprise a sensor value map that includes values derived from at least one sensor measurement for one or more positions of a corresponding indoor environment. A sensor measurement value may be ascertained (e.g., made, or taken, etc.) by a mobile device by, for example, measuring at least one value using one or more sensors of a mobile device. At least one sensor measurement value may be obtained at a position corresponding thereto by a mobile device with one or more sensors. At least one sensor value may comprise a temperature ascertained by a thermometer, a pressure ascertained by a barometer, an acceleration ascertained by an accelerometer, a compass heading ascertained by a compass, a gyroscope heading ascertained by a gyroscope, or any combination thereof, etc. By way of example only, one or more sensor measurements may be fed into a filtering mechanism together with one or more measurements pertaining to radio characteristics. Sensor measurements and radio characteristic measurements may be evaluated singularly or jointly against a sensor measurement model or a radio measurement model. Results of such an evaluation may be used as at least part of a positioning operation.

In another example implementation for radio models 404, a radio model may comprise at least one expected value for measurements at multiple positions of an indoor environment. By way of example only, a radio model 404 may store in a data structure expected values of measurements that indicate an expected range to at least one wireless transmitter device. Alternatively, a radio model 404 may provide one or more functions that characterize expected measurement values for various ranges between mobile devices and a given wireless transmitter device. Expected measurement values may correspond to, for example, RSSI measurements, RTT measurements, RTD measurements, or any combination thereof, etc. An expected measurement value may be derived from one or more actual measurements. Alternatively, an expected measurement value may be derived at least initially by simulation using, for example, a ray tracing or similar technique that predicts signaling, timing, or other characteristics of wireless signals within a modeled indoor environment. Expected measurement values in a radio model 404 may therefore indicate, for example, probable positions in an arc or circle as defined by a radial distance or range from a particular wireless transmitter device.

With an example radio model 404, expected measurement values, including patterns thereof, may be stored in a data structure in association with expected ranges to a particular wireless transmitter device. In an example positioning operation, a mobile device may ascertain one or more radio measurements (e.g., of RTT, RTD, RSSI, etc.). One or more ascertained radio measurements may be compared to expected measurement values, including patterns of expected measurement values, in a data structure of a radio model 404. Using one or more comparisons or a pattern matching algorithm, for example, a mobile device may determine expected values in a data structure of a radio model 404 that match one or more ascertained radio measurements. A radial distance from a particular wireless transmitter device may be stored in association with the matching values of the data structure. Alternatively, a mobile device may use a function, and any associated coefficients, as provided by radio model 404 to compute a radial distance based, at least in part, on the one or more ascertained radio measurements. A set of positions within an indoor environment that are defined by a radial distance or range from the particular wireless transmitter device (e.g., as looked up in table, or computed from a function, etc.) may be determined to be one or more estimated positions of the mobile device within an indoor environment.

FIG. 5 is a schematic block diagram 500 illustrating example interactions among multiple mobile devices and at least a crowdsourcing server device to provide an updated radio model according to an implementation. As illustrated, schematic block diagram 500 may include a first mobile device 102a, a second mobile device 102b, a wireless transmitter device 110, a crowdsourcing server device 106c, a map server device 106m, or one or more wired communication links 114. Schematic block diagram 500 may also include a first position 204a, a second position 204b, an updated radio model 404U, or at least one measurement 502. Schematic block diagram 500 may further include one or more interactions (3A), (3B), (3C), or (2C).

For certain example implementations, an operational scenario is described. First mobile device 102a may be located at first position 204a, e.g., within an indoor environment. First mobile device 102a may ascertain at least one measurement 502. By way of example only, measurement 502 may comprise at least one RSSI value, at least one RTT value, at least one RTD value, one or more sensor values, or any combination thereof, etc. An RSSI value, an RTT value, or an RTD value may be measured, for instance, receiving from or transmitting to a wireless transmitter device 110.



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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20130017842 A1
Publish Date
01/17/2013
Document #
13615038
File Date
09/13/2012
USPTO Class
4554561
Other USPTO Classes
International Class
04W4/04
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