CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
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This application is a Divisional application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/407,406 entitled “SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR CONSERVING BATTERY CONSUMPTION ON A MOBILE DEVICE,” filed on Feb. 28, 2012, which is a continuation application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 13/178,598 entitled “CONTEXT AWARE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT FOR RESOURCE CONSERVATION IN A WIRELESS NETWORK,” filed on Jul. 8, 2011.
When WCDMA was specified, there was little attention to requirements posed by applications whose functions are based on actions initiated by the network, in contrast to functions initiated by the user or by the device. Such applications include, for example, push email, instant messaging, visual voicemail and voice and video telephony, and others. Such applications typically require an always-on IP connection and frequent transmit of small bits of data. WCDMA networks are designed and optimized for high-throughput of large amounts of data, not for applications that require frequent, but low-throughput and/or small amounts of data. Each transaction puts the mobile device radio in a high power mode for considerable length of time—typically between 15-30 seconds. As the high power mode can consume as much as 100× the power as an idle mode, these network-initiated applications quickly drain battery in WCDMA networks. The issue has been exacerbated by the rapid increase of popularity of applications with network-initiated functionalities, such as push email.
Lack of proper support has prompted a number of vendors to provide documents to guide their operator partners and independent software vendors to configure their networks and applications to perform better in WCDMA networks. This guidance focuses on: configuring networks to go to stay on high-power radio mode as short as possible and making periodic keep alive messages that are used to maintain an always-on TCP/IP connection as infrequent as possible. Such solutions typically assume lack of coordination between the user, the application and the network.
Furthermore, application protocols may provide long-lived connections that allow servers to push updated data to a mobile device without the need of the client to periodically re-establish the connection or to periodically query for changes. However, the mobile device needs to be sure that the connection remains usable by periodically sending some data, often called a keep-alive message, to the server and making sure the server is receiving this data. While the amount of data sent for a single keep-alive is not a lot and the keep-alive interval for an individual application is not too short, the cumulative effect of multiple applications performing this individually will amount to small pieces of data being sent very frequently. Frequently sending bursts of data in a wireless network also result in high battery consumption due to the constant need of powering/re-powering the radio module.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
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FIG. 1A illustrates an example diagram of a system where a host server facilitates management of traffic between client devices and an application server or content provider in a wireless network for resource conservation.
FIG. 1B illustrates an example diagram of a proxy and cache system distributed between the host server and device which facilitates network traffic management between a device and an application server/content provider for resource conservation.
FIG. 2 depicts a block diagram illustrating an example of client-side components in a distributed proxy and cache system residing on a mobile device that manages traffic in a wireless network for resource conservation.
FIG. 3 depicts a block diagram illustrating an example of server-side components in a distributed proxy and cache system that manages traffic in a wireless network for resource conservation.
FIG. 4 depicts a diagram showing how data requests from a mobile device to an application server/content provider in a wireless network can be coordinated by a distributed proxy system in a manner such that network and battery resources are conserved through using content caching and monitoring performed by the distributed proxy system.
FIG. 5 depicts a diagram showing one example process for implementing a hybrid IP and SMS power saving mode on a mobile device using a distributed proxy and cache system (e.g., such as the distributed system shown in the example of FIG. 1B).
FIG. 6 depicts a flow chart illustrating example processes through which context awareness is used for traffic management.
FIG. 7 depicts a flow chart illustrating an example process for managing traffic in a wireless network based on user interaction with a mobile device.
FIG. 8 depicts a flow chart illustrating another example process for managing traffic in a wireless network based on user interaction with a mobile device.
FIG. 9 depicts a flow chart illustrating an example process for managing traffic initiated from a mobile device in a wireless network through batching of event transfer based on event priority.
FIG. 10 depicts a flow chart illustrating another example process for managing traffic initiated remotely from a mobile device in a wireless network through batching of event transfer based on event priority.
FIG. 11 shows a diagrammatic representation of a machine in the example form of a computer system within which a set of instructions, for causing the machine to perform any one or more of the methodologies discussed herein, may be executed.
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The following description and drawings are illustrative and are not to be construed as limiting. Numerous specific details are described to provide a thorough understanding of the disclosure. However, in certain instances, well-known or conventional details are not described in order to avoid obscuring the description. References to one or an embodiment in the present disclosure can be, but not necessarily are, references to the same embodiment; and, such references mean at least one of the embodiments.
Reference in this specification to “one embodiment” or “an embodiment” means that a particular feature, structure, or characteristic described in connection with the embodiment is included in at least one embodiment of the disclosure. The appearances of the phrase “in one embodiment” in various places in the specification are not necessarily all referring to the same embodiment, nor are separate or alternative embodiments mutually exclusive of other embodiments. Moreover, various features are described which may be exhibited by some embodiments and not by others. Similarly, various requirements are described which may be requirements for some embodiments but not other embodiments.
The terms used in this specification generally have their ordinary meanings in the art, within the context of the disclosure, and in the specific context where each term is used. Certain terms that are used to describe the disclosure are discussed below, or elsewhere in the specification, to provide additional guidance to the practitioner regarding the description of the disclosure. For convenience, certain terms may be highlighted, for example using italics and/or quotation marks. The use of highlighting has no influence on the scope and meaning of a term; the scope and meaning of a term is the same, in the same context, whether or not it is highlighted. It will be appreciated that same thing can be said in more than one way.
Consequently, alternative language and synonyms may be used for any one or more of the terms discussed herein, nor is any special significance to be placed upon whether or not a term is elaborated or discussed herein. Synonyms for certain terms are provided. A recital of one or more synonyms does not exclude the use of other synonyms. The use of examples anywhere in this specification including examples of any terms discussed herein is illustrative only, and is not intended to further limit the scope and meaning of the disclosure or of any exemplified term. Likewise, the disclosure is not limited to various embodiments given in this specification.
Without intent to limit the scope of the disclosure, examples of instruments, apparatus, methods and their related results according to the embodiments of the present disclosure are given below. Note that titles or subtitles may be used in the examples for convenience of a reader, which in no way should limit the scope of the disclosure. Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this disclosure pertains. In the case of conflict, the present document, including definitions will control.
Embodiments of the present disclosure include systems and methods for context aware traffic management for network and device resource conservation.
One embodiment of the disclosed technology includes, a system that optimizes multiple aspects of the connection with wired and wireless networks and devices through a comprehensive view of device and application activity including: loading, current application needs on a device, controlling the type of access (push vs. pull or hybrid), location, concentration of users in a single area, time of day, how often the user interacts with the application, content or device, and using this information to shape traffic to a cooperative client/server or simultaneously mobile devices without a cooperative client. Because the disclosed server is not tied to any specific network provider it has visibility into the network performance across all service providers. This enables optimizations to be applied to devices regardless of the operator or service provider, thereby enhancing the user experience and managing network utilization while roaming. Bandwidth has been considered a major issue in wireless networks today. More and more research has been done related to the need for additional bandwidth to solve access problems—many of the performance enhancing solutions and next generation standards, such as those commonly referred to as 4G, namely LTE, 4G, and WiMAX are focused on providing increased bandwidth. Although partially addressed by the standards a key problem that remains is lack of bandwidth on the signaling channel more so than the data channel. Embodiments of the disclosed technology includes, for example, alignment of requests from multiple applications to minimize the need for several polling requests; leverage specific content types to determine how to proxy/manage a connection/content; and apply specific heuristics associated with device, user behavioral patterns (how often they interact with the device/application) and/or network parameters.
Embodiments of the present technology can further include, moving recurring HTTP polls performed by various widgets, RSS readers, etc., to remote network node (e.g., Network operation center (NOC)), thus considerably lowering device battery/power consumption, radio channel signaling, and bandwidth usage. Additionally, the offloading can be performed transparently so that existing applications do not need to be changed.
In some embodiments, this can be implemented using a local proxy on the mobile device which automatically detects recurring requests for the same content (RSS feed, Widget data set) that matches a specific rule (e.g. happens every 15 minutes). The local proxy can automatically cache the content on the mobile device while delegating the polling to the server (e.g., a proxy server operated as an element of a communications network). The server can then notify the mobile/client proxy if the content changes, and if content has not changed (or not changed sufficiently, or in an identified manner or amount) the mobile proxy provides the latest version in its cache to the user (without need to utilize the radio at all). This way the mobile device (e.g., a mobile phone, smart phone, etc.) does not need to open up (e.g., thus powering on the radio) or use a data connection if the request is for content that is monitored and that has been not flagged as new, changed, or otherwise different.
The logic for automatically adding content sources/application servers (e.g., including URLs/content) to be monitored can also check for various factors like how often the content is the same, how often the same request is made (is there a fixed interval/pattern?), which application is requesting the data, etc. Similar rules to decide between using the cache and request the data from the original source may also be implemented and executed by the local proxy and/or server.
For example, when the request comes at an unscheduled/unexpected time (user initiated check), or after every (n) consecutive times the response has been provided from the cache, etc., or if the application is running in the background vs. in a more interactive mode of the foreground. As more and more mobile applications base their features on resources available in the network, this becomes increasingly important. In addition, the disclosed technology allows elimination of unnecessary chatter from the network, benefiting the operators trying to optimize the wireless spectrum usage.
FIG. 1A illustrates an example diagram of a system where a host server 100 facilitates management of traffic between client devices 102 and an application server or content provider 110 in a wireless network for resource conservation.
The client devices 102A-D can be any system and/or device, and/or any combination of devices/systems that is able to establish a connection, including wired, wireless, cellular connections with another device, a server and/or other systems such as host server 100 and/or application server/content provider 110. Client devices 102 will typically include a display and/or other output functionalities to present information and data exchanged between among the devices 102 and/or the host server 100 and/or application server/content provider 110.
For example, the client devices 102 can include mobile, hand held or portable devices or non-portable devices and can be any of, but not limited to, a server desktop, a desktop computer, a computer cluster, or portable devices including, a notebook, a laptop computer, a handheld computer, a palmtop computer, a mobile phone, a cell phone, a smart phone, a PDA, a Blackberry device, a Palm device, a handheld tablet (e.g. an iPad or any other tablet), a hand held console, a hand held gaming device or console, any SuperPhone such as the iPhone, and/or any other portable, mobile, hand held devices, etc. In one embodiment, the client devices 102, host server 100, and app server 110 are coupled via a network 106 and/or a network 108. In some embodiments, the devices 102 and host server 100 may be directly connected to one another.
The input mechanism on client devices 102 can include touch screen keypad (including single touch, multi-touch, gesture sensing in 2D or 3D, etc.), a physical keypad, a mouse, a pointer, a track pad, motion detector (e.g., including 1-axis, 2-axis, 3-axis accelerometer, etc.), a light sensor, capacitance sensor, resistance sensor, temperature sensor, proximity sensor, a piezoelectric device, device orientation detector (e.g., electronic compass, tilt sensor, rotation sensor, gyroscope, accelerometer), or a combination of the above.
Signals received or detected indicating user activity at client devices 102 through one or more of the above input mechanism, or others, can be used in the disclosed technology in acquiring context awareness at the client device 102. Context awareness at client devices 102 generally includes, by way of example but not limitation, client device 102 operation or state acknowledgement, management, user activity/behavior/interaction awareness, detection, sensing, tracking, trending, and/or application (e.g., mobile applications) type, behavior, activity, operating state, etc.
Context awareness in the present disclosure also includes knowledge and detection of network side contextual data and can include network information such as network capacity, bandwidth, traffic, type of network/connectivity, and/or any other operational state data. Network side contextual data can be received from and/or queried from network service providers (e.g., cell provider 112 and/or Internet service providers) of the network 106 and/or network 108 (e.g., by the host server and/or devices 102). In addition to application context awareness as determined from the client 102 side, the application context awareness may also be received from or obtained/queried from the respective application/service providers 110 (by the host 100 and/or client devices 102).
The host server 100 can use, for example, contextual information obtained for client devices 102, networks 106/108, applications (e.g., mobile applications), application server/provider 110, or any combination of the above, to manage the traffic in the system to satisfy data needs of the client devices 102 (e.g., to satisfy application or any other request including HTTP request). In one embodiment, the traffic is managed by the host server 100 to satisfy data requests made in response to explicit or non-explicit user 103 requests and/or device/application maintenance tasks. The traffic can be managed such that network consumption, for example, use of the cellular network is conserved for effective and efficient bandwidth utilization. In addition, the host server 100 can manage and coordinate such traffic in the system such that use of device 102 side resources (e.g., including but not limited to battery power consumption, radio use, processor/memory use) are optimized with a general philosophy for resource conservation while still optimizing performance and user experience.
For example, in context of battery conservation, the device 150 can observe user activity (for example, by observing user keystrokes, backlight status, or other signals via one or more input mechanisms, etc.) and alters device 102 behaviors. The device 150 can also request the host server 100 to alter the behavior for network resource consumption based on user activity or behavior.
In one embodiment, the traffic management for resource conservation is performed using a distributed system between the host server 100 and client device 102. The distributed system can include proxy server and cache components on the server 100 side and on the client 102 side, for example, as shown by the server cache 135 on the server 100 side and the local cache 150 on the client 102 side.
Functions and techniques disclosed for context aware traffic management for resource conservation in networks (e.g., network 106 and/or 108) and devices 102, reside in a distributed proxy and cache system. The proxy and cache system can be distributed between, and reside on, a given client device 102 in part or in whole and/or host server 100 in part or in whole. The distributed proxy and cache system are illustrated with further reference to the example diagram shown in FIG. 1B. Functions and techniques performed by the proxy and cache components in the client device 102, the host server 100, and the related components therein are described, respectively, in detail with further reference to the examples of FIG. 2-3.
In one embodiment, client devices 102 communicate with the host server 100 and/or the application server 110 over network 106, which can be a cellular network. To facilitate overall traffic management between devices 102 and various application servers/content providers 110 to implement network (bandwidth utilization) and device resource (e.g., battery consumption), the host server 100 can communicate with the application server/providers 110 over the network 108, which can include the Internet.
In general, the networks 106 and/or 108, over which the client devices 102, the host server 100, and/or application server 110 communicate, may be a cellular network, a telephonic network, an open network, such as the Internet, or a private network, such as an intranet and/or the extranet, or any combination thereof. For example, the Internet can provide file transfer, remote log in, email, news, RSS, cloud-based services, instant messaging, visual voicemail, push mail, VoIP, and other services through any known or convenient protocol, such as, but is not limited to the TCP/IP protocol, UDP, HTTP, DNS, Open System Interconnections (OSI), FTP, UPnP, iSCSI, NSF, ISDN, PDH, RS-232, SDH, SONET, etc. Open System Interconnections (OSI), FTP, UPnP, iSCSI, NSF, ISDN, PDH, RS-232, SDH, SONET, etc.
The networks 106 and/or 108 can be any collection of distinct networks operating wholly or partially in conjunction to provide connectivity to the client devices 102 and the host server 100 and may appear as one or more networks to the serviced systems and devices. In one embodiment, communications to and from the client devices 102 can be achieved by, an open network, such as the Internet, or a private network, such as an intranet and/or the extranet. In one embodiment, communications can be achieved by a secure communications protocol, such as secure sockets layer (SSL), or transport layer security (TLS).
In addition, communications can be achieved via one or more networks, such as, but are not limited to, one or more of WiMax, a Local Area Network (LAN), Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), a Personal area network (PAN), a Campus area network (CAN), a Metropolitan area network (MAN), a Wide area network (WAN), a Wireless wide area network (WWAN), enabled with technologies such as, by way of example, Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM), Personal Communications Service (PCS), Digital Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-Amps), Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Fixed Wireless Data, 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 4G, IMT-Advanced, pre-4G, 3G LTE, 3GPP LTE, LTE Advanced, mobile WiMax, WiMax 2, WirelessMAN-Advanced networks, enhanced data rates for GSM evolution (EDGE), General packet radio service (GPRS), enhanced GPRS, iBurst, UMTS, HSPDA, HSUPA, HSPA, UMTS-TDD, 1xRTT, EV-DO, messaging protocols such as, TCP/IP, SMS, MMS, extensible messaging and presence protocol (XMPP), real time messaging protocol (RTMP), instant messaging and presence protocol (IMPP), instant messaging, USSD, IRC, or any other wireless data networks or messaging protocols.
FIG. 1B illustrates an example diagram of a proxy and cache system distributed between the host server 100 and device 150 which facilitates network traffic management between the device 150 and an application server/content provider 100 (e.g., a source server) for resource conservation.
The distributed proxy and cache system can include, for example, the proxy server 125 (e.g., remote proxy) and the server cache, 135 components on the server side. The server-side proxy 125 and cache 135 can, as illustrated, reside internal to the host server 100. In addition, the proxy server 125 and cache 135 on the server-side can be partially or wholly external to the host server 100 and in communication via one or more of the networks 106 and 108. For example, the proxy server 125 may be external to the host server and the server cache 135 may be maintained at the host server 100. Alternatively, the proxy server 125 may be within the host server 100 while the server cache is external to the host server 100. In addition, each of the proxy server 125 and the cache 135 may be partially internal to the host server 100 and partially external to the host server 100.
The distributed system can also, include, in one embodiment, client-side components, including by way of example but not limitation, a local proxy 175 (e.g., a mobile client on a mobile device) and/or a local cache 185, which can, as illustrated, reside internal to the device 150 (e.g., a mobile device).
In addition, the client-side proxy 175 and local cache 185 can be partially or wholly external to the device 150 and in communication via one or more of the networks 106 and 108. For example, the local proxy 175 may be external to the device 150 and the local cache 185 may be maintained at the device 150. Alternatively, the local proxy 175 may be within the device 150 while the local cache 185 is external to the device 150. In addition, each of the proxy 175 and the cache 185 may be partially internal to the host server 100 and partially external to the host server 100.
In one embodiment, the distributed system can include an optional caching proxy server 199. The caching proxy server 199 can be a component which is operated by the application server/content provider 110, the host server 100, or a network service provider 112, and or any combination of the above to facilitate network traffic management for network and device resource conservation. Proxy server 199 can be used, for example, for caching content to be provided to the device 150, for example, from one or more of, the application server/provider 110, host server 100, and/or a network service provider 112. Content caching can also be entirely or partially performed by the remote proxy 125 to satisfy application requests or other data requests at the device 150.
In context aware traffic management and optimization for resource conservation in a network (e.g., cellular or other wireless networks), characteristics of user activity/behavior and/or application behavior at a mobile device 150 can be tracked by the local proxy 175 and communicated, over the network 106 to the proxy server 125 component in the host server 100, for example, as connection metadata. The proxy server 125 which in turn is coupled to the application server/provider 110 provides content and data to satisfy requests made at the device 150.
In addition, the local proxy 175 can identify and retrieve mobile device properties including, one or more of, battery level, network that the device is registered on, radio state, whether the mobile device is being used (e.g., interacted with by a user). In some instances, the local proxy 175 can delay, expedite (prefetch), and/or modify data prior to transmission to the proxy server 125, when appropriate, as will be further detailed with references to the description associated with the examples of FIG. 2-3.
The local database 185 can be included in the local proxy 175 or coupled to the proxy 175 and can be queried for a locally stored response to the data request prior to the data request being forwarded on to the proxy server 125. Locally cached responses can be used by the local proxy 175 to satisfy certain application requests of the mobile device 150, by retrieving cached content stored in the cache storage 185, when the cached content is still valid.
Similarly, the proxy server 125 of the host server 100 can also delay, expedite, or modify data from the local proxy prior to transmission to the content sources (e.g., the app server/content provider 110). In addition, the proxy server 125 uses device properties and connection metadata to generate rules for satisfying request of applications on the mobile device 150. The proxy server 125 can gather real time traffic information about requests of applications for later use in optimizing similar connections with the mobile device 150 or other mobile devices.
In general, the local proxy 175 and the proxy server 125 are transparent to the multiple applications executing on the mobile device. The local proxy 175 is generally transparent to the operating system or platform of the mobile device and may or may not be specific to device manufacturers. For example, the local proxy can be implemented without adding a TCP stack and thus act transparently to both the US and the mobile applications. In some instances, the local proxy 175 is optionally customizable in part or in whole to be device specific. In some embodiments, the local proxy 175 may be bundled into a wireless model, into a firewall, and/or a router.
In one embodiment, the host server 100 can in some instances, utilize the store and forward functions of a short message service center (SMSC) 112, such as that provided by the network service provider 112, in communicating with the device 150 in achieving network traffic management. As will be further described with reference to the example of FIG. 3, the host server 100 can forward content or HTTP responses to the SMSC 112 such that it is automatically forwarded to the device 150 if available, and for subsequent forwarding if the device 150 is not currently available.
In general, the disclosed distributed proxy and cache system allows optimization of network usage, for example, by serving requests from the local cache 185, the local proxy 175 reduces the number of requests that need to be satisfied over the network 106. Further, the local proxy 175 and the proxy server 125 may filter irrelevant data from the communicated data. In addition, the local proxy 175 and the proxy server 125 can also accumulate low priority data and send it in batches to avoid the protocol overhead of sending individual data fragments. The local proxy 175 and the proxy server 125 can also compress or transcode the traffic, reducing the amount of data sent over the network 106 and/or 108. The signaling traffic in the network 106 and/or 108 can be reduced, as the networks are now used less often and the network traffic can be synchronized among individual applications.
With respect to the battery life of the mobile device 150, by serving application or content requests from the local cache 185, the local proxy 175 can reduce the number of times the radio module is powered up. The local proxy 175 and the proxy server 125 can work in conjunction to accumulate low priority data and send it in batches to reduce the number of times and/or amount of time when the radio is powered up. The local proxy 175 can synchronize the network use by performing the batched data transfer for all connections simultaneously.
FIG. 2 depicts a block diagram illustrating an example of client-side components in a distributed proxy and cache system residing on a device 250 that manages traffic in a wireless network for resource conservation.
The device 250, which can be a portable or mobile device, such as a portable phone, generally includes, for example, a network interface 208, an operating system 204, a context API 206, and mobile applications which may be proxy unaware 210 or proxy aware 220. Note that the device 250 is specifically illustrated in the example of FIG. 2 as a mobile device, such is not a limitation and that device 250 may be any portable/mobile or non-portable device able to receive, transmit signals to satisfy data requests over a network including wired or wireless networks (e.g., WiFi, cellular, Bluetooth, etc.).
The network interface 208 can be a networking module that enables the device 250 to mediate data in a network with an entity that is external to the host server 250, through any known and/or convenient communications protocol supported by the host and the external entity. The network interface 208 can include one or more of a network adaptor card, a wireless network interface card (e.g., SMS interface, WiFi interface, interfaces for various generations of mobile communication standards including but not limited to 1G, 2G, 3G, 3.5G, 4G, LTE, etc.), Bluetooth, or whether or not the connection is via a router, an access point, a wireless router, a switch, a multilayer switch, a protocol converter, a gateway, a bridge, bridge router, a hub, a digital media receiver, and/or a repeater.
Device 250 can further include, client-side components of the distributed proxy and cache system which can include, a local proxy 275 (e.g., a mobile client of a mobile device) and a cache 285. In one embodiment, the local proxy 275 includes a user activity module 215, a proxy API 225, a request/transaction manager 235, a caching policy manager 245, a traffic shaping engine 255, and/or a connection manager 265. The traffic shaping engine 255 may further include an alignment module 256 and/or a batching module 257, the connection manager 265 may further include a radio controller 266. The request/transaction manager 235 can further include an application behavior detector 236 and/or a prioritization engine 238, the application behavior detector 236 may further include a pattern detector 237 and/or and application profile generator 238. Additional or less components/modules/engines can be included in the local proxy 275 and each illustrated component.
As used herein, a “module,” “a manager,” a “handler,” a “detector,” an “interface,” or an “engine” includes a general purpose, dedicated or shared processor and, typically, firmware or software modules that are executed by the processor. Depending upon implementation-specific or other considerations, the module, manager, hander, or engine can be centralized or its functionality distributed. The module, manager, hander, or engine can include general or special purpose hardware, firmware, or software embodied in a computer-readable (storage) medium for execution by the processor. As used herein, a computer-readable medium or computer-readable storage medium is intended to include all mediums that are statutory (e.g., in the United States, under 35 U.S.C. 101), and to specifically exclude all mediums that are non-statutory in nature to the extent that the exclusion is necessary for a claim that includes the computer-readable (storage) medium to be valid. Known statutory computer-readable mediums include hardware (e.g., registers, random access memory (RAM), non-volatile (NV) storage, to name a few), but may or may not be limited to hardware.
In one embodiment, a portion of the distributed proxy and cache system for network traffic management resides in or is in communication with device 250, including local proxy 275 (mobile client) and/or cache 285. The local proxy 275 can provide an interface on the device 150 for users to access device applications and services including email, IM, voice mail, visual voicemail, feeds, Internet, other applications, etc.
The proxy 275 is generally application independent and can be used by applications (e.g., both proxy aware and proxy-unaware mobile applications 210 and 220) to open TCP connections to a remote server (e.g., the server 100 in the examples of FIG. 1A-1B and/or server proxy 125/325 shown in the examples of FIG. 1B and FIG. 3). In some instances, the local proxy 275 includes a proxy API 225 which can be optionally used to interface with proxy-aware applications 220 (or mobile applications on a mobile device).
The applications 210 and 220 can generally include any user application, widgets, software, HTTP-based application, web browsers, video or other multimedia streaming or downloading application, video games, social network applications, email clients, RSS management applications, application stores, document management applications, productivity enhancement applications, etc. The applications can be provided with the device OS, by the device manufacturer, by the network service provider, downloaded by the user, or provided by others.
One embodiment of the local proxy 275 includes or is coupled to a context API 206, as shown. The context API 206 may be a part of the operating system 204 or device platform or independent of the operating system 204, as illustrated. The operating system 204 can include any operating system including but not limited to, any previous, current, and/or future versions/releases of, Windows Mobile, iOS, Android, Symbian, Palm OS, Brew MP, Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME), Blackberry, etc.
The context API 206 may be a plug-in to the operating system 204 or a particular client application on the device 250. The context API 206 can detect signals indicative of user or device activity, for example, sensing motion, gesture, device location, changes in device location, device backlight, keystrokes, clicks, activated touch screen, mouse click or detection of other pointer devices. The context API 206 can be coupled to input devices or sensors on the device 250 to identify these signals. Such signals can generally include input received in response to explicit user input at an input device/mechanism at the device 250 and/or collected from ambient signals/contextual cues detected at or in the vicinity of the device 250 (e.g., light, motion, piezoelectric, etc.).
In one embodiment, the user activity module 215 interacts with the context API 206 to identify, determine, infer, detect, compute, predict, and/or anticipate, characteristics of user activity on the device 250. Various inputs collected by the context API 206 can be aggregated by the user activity module 215 to generate a profile for characteristics of user activity. Such a profile can be generated by the module 215 with various temporal characteristics. For instance, user activity profile can be generated in real-time for a given instant to provide a view of what the user is doing or not doing at a given time (e.g., defined by a time window, in the last minute, in the last 30 seconds, etc.), a user activity profile can also be generated for a ‘session’ defined by an application or web page that describes the characteristics of user behavior with respect to a specific task they are engaged in on the device 250, or for a specific time period (e.g., for the last 2 hours, for the last 5 hours).
Additionally, characteristic profiles can be generated by the user activity module 215 to depict a historical trend for user activity and behavior (e.g. 1 week, 1 mo, 2 mo, etc.). Such historical profiles can also be used to deduce trends of user behavior, for example, access frequency at different times of day, trends for certain days of the week (weekends or week days), user activity trends based on location data (e.g., IP address, GPS, or cell tower coordinate data) or changes in location data (e.g., user activity based on user location, or user activity based on whether the user is on the go, or traveling outside a home region, etc.) to obtain user activity characteristics.
In one embodiment, user activity module 215 can detect and track user activity with respect to applications, documents, files, windows, icons, and folders on the device 250. For example, the user activity module 215 can detect when an application or window (e.g., a web browser) has been exited, closed, minimized, maximized, opened, moved into the foreground, or into the background, multimedia content playback, etc.
In one embodiment, characteristics of the user activity on the device 250 can be used to locally adjust behavior of the device (e.g., mobile device) to optimize its resource consumption such as battery/power consumption and more generally, consumption of other device resources including memory, storage, and processing power. In one embodiment, the use of a radio on a device can be adjusted based on characteristics of user behavior (e.g., by the radio controller 266 of the connection manager 265) coupled to the user activity module 215. For example, the radio controller 266 can turn the radio on or off, based on characteristics of the user activity on the device 250. In addition, the radio controller 266 can adjust the power mode of the radio (e.g., to be in a higher power mode or lower power mode) depending on characteristics of user activity.
In one embodiment, characteristics of the user activity on device 250 can also be used to cause another device (e.g., other computers, a mobile device, or a non-portable device) or server (e.g., host server 100 and 300 in the examples of FIG. 1A-B and FIG. 3) which can communicate (e.g., via a cellular or other network) with the device 250 to modify its communication frequency with the device 250. The local proxy 275 can use the characteristics information of user behavior determined by the user activity module 215 to instruct the remote device as to how to modulate its communication frequency (e.g., decreasing communication frequency, such as data push frequency if the user is idle, requesting that the remote device notify the device 250 if new data, changed data, different data, or data of a certain level of importance becomes available, etc.).
In one embodiment, the user activity module 215 can, in response to determining that user activity characteristics indicate that a user is active after a period of inactivity, request that a remote device (e.g., server host server 100 and 300 in the examples of FIG. 1A-B and FIG. 3) send the data that was buffered as a result of the previously decreased communication frequency.
In addition, or in alternative, the local proxy 275 can communicate the characteristics of user activity at the device 250 to the remote device (e.g., host server 100 and 300 in the examples of FIG. 1A-B and FIG. 3) and the remote device determines how to alter its own communication frequency with the device 250 for network resource conservation and conservation of device 250 resources.
One embodiment of the local proxy 275 further includes a request/transaction manager 235, which can detect, identify, intercept, process, manage, data requests initiated on the device 250, for example, by applications 210 and/or 220, and/or directly/indirectly by a user request. The request/transaction manager 235 can determine how and when to process a given request or transaction, or a set of requests/transactions, based on transaction characteristics.
The request/transaction manager 235 can prioritize requests or transactions made by applications and/or users at the device 250, for example by the prioritization engine 238. Importance or priority of requests/transactions can be determined by the manager 235 by applying a rule set, for example, according to time sensitivity of the transaction, time sensitivity of the content in the transaction, time criticality of the transaction, time criticality of the data transmitted in the transaction, and/or time criticality or importance of an application making the request.
In addition, transaction characteristics can also depend on whether the transaction was a result of user-interaction or other user initiated action on the device (e.g., user interaction with a mobile application). In general, a time critical transaction can include a transaction resulting from a user-initiated data transfer, and can be prioritized as such. Transaction characteristics can also depend on the amount of data that will be transferred or is anticipated to be transferred as a result of the request/requested transaction. For example, the connection manager 265, can adjust the radio mode (e.g., high power or low power mode via the radio controller 266) based on the amount of data that will need to be transferred.
In addition, the radio controller 266/connection manager 265 can adjust the radio power mode (high or low) based on time criticality/sensitivity of the transaction. The radio controller 266 can trigger the use of high power radio mode when a time-critical transaction (e.g., a transaction resulting from a user-initiated data transfer, an application running in the foreground, any other event meeting a certain criteria) is initiated or detected.
In general, the priorities can be set by default, for example, based on device platform, device manufacturer, operating system, etc. Priorities can alternatively or in additionally be set by the particular application; for example, the Facebook mobile application can set its own priorities for various transactions (e.g., a status update can be of higher priority than an add friend request or a poke request, a message send request can be of higher priority than a message delete request, for example), an email client or IM chat client may have its own configurations for priority. The prioritization engine 238 may include set of rules for assigning priority.
The priority engine 238 can also track network provider limitations or specifications on application or transaction priority in determining an overall priority status for a request/transaction. Furthermore, priority can in part or in whole be determined by user preferences, either explicit or implicit. A user, can in general, set priorities at different tiers, such as, specific priorities for sessions, or types, or applications (e.g., a browsing session, a gaming session, versus an IM chat session, the user may set a gaming session to always have higher priority than an IM chat session, which may have higher priority than web-browsing session). A user can set application-specific priorities, (e.g., a user may set Facebook related transactions to have a higher priority than LinkedIn related transactions), for specific transaction types (e.g., for all send message requests across all applications to have higher priority than message delete requests, for all calendar-related events to have a high priority, etc.), and/or for specific folders.
The priority engine 238 can track and resolve conflicts in priorities set by different entities. For example, manual settings specified by the user may take precedence over device OS settings, network provider parameters/limitations (e.g., set in default for a network service area, geographic locale, set for a specific time of day, or set based on service/fee type) may limit any user-specified settings and/or application-set priorities. In some instances, a manual sync request received from a user can override some, most, or all priority settings in that the requested synchronization is performed when requested, regardless of the individually assigned priority or an overall priority ranking for the requested action.
Priority can be specified and tracked internally in any known and/or convenient manner, including but not limited to, a binary representation, a multi-valued representation, a graded representation and all are considered to be within the scope of the disclosed technology.