FreshPatents.com Logo
stats FreshPatents Stats
n/a views for this patent on FreshPatents.com
Updated: October 26 2014
newTOP 200 Companies filing patents this week


    Free Services  

  • MONITOR KEYWORDS
  • Enter keywords & we'll notify you when a new patent matches your request (weekly update).

  • ORGANIZER
  • Save & organize patents so you can view them later.

  • RSS rss
  • Create custom RSS feeds. Track keywords without receiving email.

  • ARCHIVE
  • View the last few months of your Keyword emails.

  • COMPANY DIRECTORY
  • Patents sorted by company.

Follow us on Twitter
twitter icon@FreshPatents

Radio frequency particles

last patentdownload pdfdownload imgimage previewnext patent


20120299762 patent thumbnailZoom

Radio frequency particles


Particle circuits for disrupting signals associated with a communication system or for marking a position of a device are provided. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a composite for generating radio frequency (RF) signals, the composite including a medium configured to adhere to a device for emanating communication signals, and at least one particle circuitry within the medium, wherein the at least one particle circuitry is configured to radiate radio frequency signals for disrupting the communication signals of the device.

Inventor: Gary A. Frazier
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120299762 - Class: 342 14 (USPTO) - 11/29/12 - Class 342 


view organizer monitor keywords


The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120299762, Radio frequency particles.

last patentpdficondownload pdfimage previewnext patent

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION(S)

The present application claims the benefit of Provisional Application No. 61/146,609, filed Jan. 22, 2009, entitled “RADIO FREQUENCY PARTICLES”, the entire content of which is incorporated herein by reference.

BACKGROUND TO THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to a system and a method for degrading the operating characteristics of a radar or other radio frequency system such that the system has reduced detection range or significant aiming errors. More specifically, the present invention relates to a system and a method for using paint-like coatings or particles that can absorb and emit radio signals to disrupt the operation of a radar system.

Radar systems use electromagnetic waves to identify characteristics such as range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and stationary objects such as aircraft, ships, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar system antenna sends out pulses of radio waves or microwaves. These pulsed waves are reflected off of objects in their path, and return to the antenna, which detects and measures the reflected waves. Using the time it takes for the reflected waves to return to the antenna, a radar system computer calculates how far away the object is, its radial velocity and other characteristics.

In military applications, it is generally useful to provide a means for disrupting an enemy\'s fire control radar system so that missiles that rely upon this system for guidance cannot be accurately directed to their intercept point. Today, the most effective, and destructive, countermeasure to radar is to attack the system using an anti-radiation missile (ARM). An ARM homes-in on the transmit beam of the radar and uses kinetic or chemical energy to neutralize the radar. This approach, to make little pieces out of big pieces of the radar, has the drawback that this process is thermodynamically irreversible and may in fact be viewed as a hostile act by the government or organization that has deployed the radar. An ARM attack would certainly be viewed as an unfriendly act by the personnel situated close to the insulted radar. Thus, there is a general need for a system and a method to disrupt radar operation without limiting the ability of the radar to recover from the disruption at a later time.

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

One object of the present invention is to provide a material that can be deposited onto the antenna of a radar or other radio frequency system in a manner that disrupts the sensitivity or focusing characteristic of the system to the degree that it becomes incapable of detecting downrange targets or accurately directing fire toward a detected target.

In one embodiment, the invention relates to a composite for generating radio frequency (RF) signals, the composite including a medium configured to adhere to a device for emanating communication signals, and at least one particle circuitry within the medium, wherein the at least one particle circuitry is configured to radiate radio frequency signals for disrupting the communication signals of the device.

In another embodiment, the invention relates to a composite for generating radio frequency (RF) signals, the composite including a medium configured to adhere to a device for emanating communication signals, and at least one particle circuitry within the medium, wherein the at least one particle circuitry is configured to radiate signals for marking a position of the device.

In yet another embodiment, the invention relates to a particle for disrupting signals associated with a source of ambient radio frequency (RF) energy, the particle including: circuitry configured to receive energy from the source of ambient RF energy, and generate radio frequency signals, using the received energy, for disrupting signals emanating from the source of ambient RF energy.

In still yet another embodiment, the invention relates to a composite for disrupting signals associated with a source of ambient radio frequency (RF) energy, the composite including a medium containing at least one particle including an antenna and a gain element, the gain element configured to rectify radio frequency energy received by the antenna, and oscillate using the received energy.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a radar system with a disruptive paint or other material applied to a surface of an antenna of the radar system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic block diagram of a particle circuit in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of an integrated circuit implementation of the particle circuit of FIG. 2 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 4a is a top view of the integrated circuit implementation of FIG. 3.

FIG. 4b is a schematic block diagram of a particle circuit in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 4c is a top view of an integrated circuit implementation of the particle circuit of FIG. 4b.

FIG. 5 is a schematic block diagram of a particle circuit having a dipole antenna in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of a particle circuit including a solar cell, a quantum dot gain element (QDot or QD), and a spiral antenna in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a particle circuit including a rectifying antenna (rectenna), a QDot, and a spiral antenna in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 8 is a graph of current versus voltage illustrating the electrical response performance characteristics of a QDot in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 9 is a top view of a semiconductor chip implementation of the particle circuits of any of FIG. 2, 5, 6 or 7.

FIG. 10 is a top view of a semiconductor chip implementation of a particle circuit including a broadband spiral antenna in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 11 is a cross sectional view of a semiconductor chip implementation of a particle circuit taken along the width of the chip in accordance with the embodiments of FIG. 9 and FIG. 10.

FIG. 12 is a graph of generated power versus oscillator width for a particle circuit including a solar cell disposed approximately one meter from a radar system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 13 is a schematic diagram of a particle circuit having a loop antenna in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 14 is a schematic diagram of a particle circuit having two loop antennae in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 15 is a schematic block diagram of a particle circuit having a ring resonator in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 16 is a top view of a semiconductor chip implementation of the particle circuit of FIG. 15 in accordance with one embodiment of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

OF THE INVENTION

Referring now to the drawings, embodiments of particles constructed according to the invention emit radio frequency (RF) signals that can be disruptive to nearby radar or other RF systems. In other embodiments, the particles emit non-disruptive RF signals for position marking or tagging applications. The particles may be pigment particles and can be applied to the radar system using a fluid medium such as paint, a collection of dust-like particles, or by other suitable means. In some embodiments, the paint is deposited in the path of the radar transmit and receive signals. For example, the paint may be sprayed or splattered onto a radar dish or phased array antenna. When the radar system becomes active, each particle can absorb some of the energy transmitted by the radar and can store this energy in electrical form within the particle battery.

After the radar ceases to transmit, the energy stored in the particle is used to power the particle oscillator. The oscillator, being coupled to its antenna, emits radio frequency energy and this energy can be intercepted by the radar receiver. A plurality of such particles, collectively excited by the radar, produces a strong radio frequency signal that can be directed into the radar receiver. A sufficient signal from the particles can either overload the front end of the radar receiver or raise the apparent background noise within the receiver circuitry. In some embodiments, the particles are applied to the radar systems using a paint gun pellet, a spherical vessel, or other suitable vessels. In other embodiments, the particles direct the RF emissions to a remote RF receiver in a tagging application.

In many embodiments, the particles of the invention include an electronic circuit. In some embodiments, the electronic circuits store RF energy received from the “host” radar system and generate disruptive RF signals using the stored energy. In one such case, for example, the particle circuit includes an antenna for both receiving and radiating energy, a gain element for boosting received energy and radiated energy, and a battery for storing the received energy (e.g., a capacitor).

In other embodiments, the particle circuits store solar energy and generate disruptive signals using stored solar energy. For example, in one such embodiment, the particle circuit includes a solar cell for generating energy, a gain element for boosting either received solar energy or stored solar energy, a battery for storing the solar energy, and an oscillating antenna for generating the disruptive RF signals.

In yet other embodiments, the particle circuits receive solar and/or RF energy and convert it into disruptive and/or non-disruptive RF signals without storing the energy. In a number of embodiments, different configurations of components can be used to implement particle circuits that can receive energy and use that energy to generate signals disruptive to a radar system or non-disruptive for position marking.

The term pigment generally refers to a substance that provides color. As used within this application, pigment has a broader meaning.

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a radar system with a disruptive paint or other material applied to a surface of an antenna of the radar system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. The radar system 100 includes an antenna 102 having an area 104 covered with a paint containing one or more pigment particles (not visible).

In operation, the pigment particles receive RF energy generated when the radar system transmits radar signals. When the radar system becomes active, each particle can absorb some of the energy transmitted by the radar and can store this energy in electrical form within the particle battery. After the radar ceases to transmit, the energy stored in the particle is used to power the particle oscillator. The oscillator, being coupled to its antenna emits radio frequency energy and this energy can be intercepted by the radar receiver. A plurality of such pigment particles, collectively excited by the radar, produces a strong radio frequency signal that can be directed into the radar receiver. A sufficient signal from the particles either overloads the front end of the radar receiver or raises the apparent background noise within the receiver circuitry. In other embodiments, the particles produce RF signals for position marking.

Raising the noise floor of the receiver can force the radar operator to increase the threshold for target detection in order to reduce the probability of false detection alarms. The increase in signal detection threshold reduces the ability of the radar to detect those targets that provide a marginal radar echo signal at the radar. If the net radio frequency signal from the pigment particles overloads the front end of the radar receiver, then intermodulation effects within the radar receiver degrade the effective noise figure of the radar or otherwise degrade the ability of the radar to detect a target.

In several embodiments, the paint is used to absorb energy from the radar and re-emit this form of energy after the excitation has ceased. While not bound by any particular theory, this use is analogous to the phenomenon of optical phosphorescence where a material may store energy absorbed from an optical light source and re-emit this energy after the light source has been removed. Thus, in some embodiments, the pigment particles can be thought of as phosphors.

The final thickness of the deposited RF paint can be a variable of manufacture which is adjusted by controlling the viscosity of an optional fluid that suspends the RF phosphors within a deployment container and the speed with which the paint collides with the radar surface. The deployment container can be, as an example, a paint ball pellet as is used in recreational paint ball guns. In a number of embodiments, the viscosity and terminal speed are adjusted so that the RF paint is deposited as a mono-layer of RF phosphor particles. However, even a layer of RF phosphor particles that is greater than a monolayer can still have a detrimental effect on the radar system since each layer of pigment particles can absorb some fraction of the radar signal and still be able to radiate some signal through any intervening layers of pigment to disrupt the radar receiver.

FIG. 2 is a schematic block diagram of a pigment particle circuit in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. The pigment particle circuit 200 includes an antenna 202, a gain element 204, a first blocking filter 206, a second blocking filter 208, and a capacitor 210. The gain element 204 is disposed along the antenna 202. The first blocking filter 206 is coupled to one terminal of the gain element 204, while the second blocking filter 208 is coupled to another terminal of the gain element 204. The first blocking filter 206 is also coupled to one terminal of the capacitor 210, while the second blocking filter 208 is coupled to another terminal of the capacitor 210.

In operation, the antenna 202 receives energy in the form of radar signals from a radar or other RF system (not shown). The gain element 204 amplifies and/or rectifies the received radar signals. The amplified signals and energy can be stored in the capacitor 210. The blocking filters (206, 208) isolate the capacitor 210 from the antenna 202 and gain element 204. In a number of embodiments, the blocking filters are coils used to block high frequency signals and pass low frequency, or direct current (DC), signals. Energy stored in the capacitor 210 is dissipated at particular frequencies using the antenna 202. In such case, the capacitor 210 and antenna 204 act together as an oscillator. The oscillator generates signals at preselected frequencies. In most embodiments, the preselected frequencies are frequencies known to be disruptive to a radar or other RF system. In some embodiments, for example, the preselected frequencies are in the range from 50 MHz to 100 GHz.

The gain element 204 can have both diode-like (rectifying) and gain properties. Examples of suitable gain elements include a transistor, tunnel diode, or other device. As a diode, the gain element rectifies the received energy from the radar system and stores this pulsed DC power in a capacitor or thin film battery. This circuit function is popularly known as a rectenna, or rectifying antenna. The blocking filters pass the rectified DC current to the capacitor while isolating the capacitor from the RF circuit. When the radar system ceases to transmit, the electrical energy stored in the capacitor flows back into the gain element. The antenna provides a resonator and feedback so the circuit oscillates at the antenna frequency. The circuit can oscillate until the energy in the capacitor is depleted. Since many fire control radars operate with a pulse repetition rate in the kilohertz (KHz) range, the pigment particle circuit need only radiate for a few hundred microseconds before the next transmit pulse recharges the circuit.

In one embodiment, a single one inch sphere (e.g. paint ball size) of RF paint containing approximately 1,000 RF pigment particles suspended in a resin and applied to a dish antenna produces a signal of approximately 20 mW directly into the antenna feed. Such signal strength is 10 orders of magnitude larger than a radar echo from a standoff attack aircraft. This implies up to a 100 dB increase in the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) threshold in a typical engagement radar, which is enough to completely disrupt its operation.

In many embodiments, the antenna 202 and gain elements 204 act in concert as a rectifying antenna or rectenna. In several embodiments, the antenna 202 and capacitor 210 act as an oscillator to generate the signals that can disrupt a radar system. In some embodiments, the gain element 204 is a rectifying diode. In other embodiments, other suitable gain elements can be deployed.

In some embodiments, a switch can be coupled to the capacitor to enable an external control for controlling the timing of the generation of radar jamming signals. In one embodiment, the switch can be controlled by a signal indicative of a threshold amount of RF energy received at a preselected frequency. In other embodiments, the switch can be controlled by a remote device such as a laser.

In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2, the blocking filters are coils that can isolate the antenna section from the energy storage section. In other embodiments, other circuitry can be used to isolate the antenna section from the energy storage section. In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2, the capacitor (e.g., thin film capacitor) is used as the energy storage device. In other embodiments, a battery (e.g., thin film lithium ion battery) can be used as the energy storage device. In other embodiments, other suitable energy storage devices can be used.



Download full PDF for full patent description/claims.

Advertise on FreshPatents.com - Rates & Info


You can also Monitor Keywords and Search for tracking patents relating to this Radio frequency particles patent application.
###
monitor keywords



Keyword Monitor How KEYWORD MONITOR works... a FREE service from FreshPatents
1. Sign up (takes 30 seconds). 2. Fill in the keywords to be monitored.
3. Each week you receive an email with patent applications related to your keywords.  
Start now! - Receive info on patent apps like Radio frequency particles or other areas of interest.
###


Previous Patent Application:
Method and integrated routing device for controlling remote systems via short messages
Next Patent Application:
Position determining method and system using surveillance ground stations
Industry Class:
Communications: directive radio wave systems and devices (e.g., radar, radio navigation)
Thank you for viewing the Radio frequency particles patent info.
- - - Apple patents, Boeing patents, Google patents, IBM patents, Jabil patents, Coca Cola patents, Motorola patents

Results in 0.6887 seconds


Other interesting Freshpatents.com categories:
Medical: Surgery Surgery(2) Surgery(3) Drug Drug(2) Prosthesis Dentistry  

###

Data source: patent applications published in the public domain by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). Information published here is for research/educational purposes only. FreshPatents is not affiliated with the USPTO, assignee companies, inventors, law firms or other assignees. Patent applications, documents and images may contain trademarks of the respective companies/authors. FreshPatents is not responsible for the accuracy, validity or otherwise contents of these public document patent application filings. When possible a complete PDF is provided, however, in some cases the presented document/images is an abstract or sampling of the full patent application for display purposes. FreshPatents.com Terms/Support
-g2--0.7004
     SHARE
  
           


stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20120299762 A1
Publish Date
11/29/2012
Document #
12691682
File Date
01/21/2010
USPTO Class
342 14
Other USPTO Classes
International Class
01S7/38
Drawings
11



Follow us on Twitter
twitter icon@FreshPatents