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Systems and methods for guiding catheters using registered images

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Systems and methods for guiding catheters using registered images


Systems and methods for imaging a body cavity and for guiding a treatment element within a body cavity are provided. A system may include an imaging subsystem having an imaging device and an image processor that gather image data for the body cavity. A mapping subsystem may be provided, including a mapping device and a map processor, to identify target sites within the body cavity, and provide location data for the sites. The system may also include a location processor coupled to a location element on a treatment device to track the location of the location element. The location of a treatment element is determined by reference to the location element. A treatment subsystem including a treatment device having a treatment element and a treatment delivery source may also be provided. A registration subsystem receives and registers data from the other subsystems, and displays the data.

Browse recent Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc. patents - Maple Grove, MN, US
Inventor: Dorin Panescu
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120277574 - Class: 600421 (USPTO) - 11/01/12 - Class 600 
Surgery > Diagnostic Testing >Detecting Nuclear, Electromagnetic, Or Ultrasonic Radiation >Magnetic Resonance Imaging Or Spectroscopy >Including Any System Component Contacting (internal Or External) Or Conforming To Body Or Body Part

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120277574, Systems and methods for guiding catheters using registered images.

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RELATED APPLICATIONS

The present application is a continuation-in-part of copending U.S. application Ser. No. 10/012,293.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present inventions relate generally to systems and methods for guiding and locating diagnostic or therapeutic elements on medical instruments positioned in a body.

BACKGROUND

The use of invasive medical devices, such as catheters and laparoscopes in order to gain access into interior regions or volumes within the body for performing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures is well known. In such procedures, it is important for a physician or technician to be able to precisely position the device, including various functional elements located on the device, within the body in order to make contact with a desired body tissue location.

In order to accurately position the device, it is desirable that the shape or configuration of the particular volume be determined, and registered in a known three-dimensional coordinate system, as well as the location or locations of sites within the volume identified for treatment. Current techniques, however, are incapable of determining and registering the true shape and configuration, as well as the dynamic movement of a volume, or at the least at a resolution high enough to provide a physician a comfortable understanding of the volume. Many current techniques use fluoroscopy to generate an image of the target volume. These devices only provide two-dimensional information about the volume, however, rather than the more preferred three-dimensional information. The result is that physicians using fluoroscopy to obtain an image of the volume within which a medical device is guided must rely partly on their own general knowledge of anatomy to compensate for the two-dimensional image obtained by the fluoroscope. In addition, not only do these device not give the physician a three-dimensional view of the volume, but also do not give an understanding of possible obstacles or movements within the volume itself, such as the opening and closing of valves, atrio-septal defects, atrio-septal defect closure plugs, and the like.

Some technologies are capable of generating and registered three-dimensional images, but these devices are typically incapable of producing a high resolution image of the interior space of the volume, since they operate from outside of the body, or from a location outside of the target volume itself, in the case of transthoracic or transesophageal echography used to image the heart.

Therefore, it would be desirable to provide systems and methods for guiding a medical device that are able to generate higher resolution images of the target volume such that a physician is able to compensate for any obstructions or physical landmarks within the volume itself

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

The present inventions relate generally to systems and methods for guiding and locating diagnostic or therapeutic elements on medical instruments positioned in a body by reconstructing a three-dimensional representation of a subject volume, displaying the representation with or without mapping data, and guiding a device, such as, e.g., a treatment device, by reference to the representation, the mapping data, if available, and the current position of the treatment device within the volume.

In accordance with a first aspect of the present inventions, a method of performing a procedure in a body cavity of a patient, such as a heart chamber, comprises generating three-dimensional image data of the body cavity, generating optional three-dimensional mapping data of the body cavity, registering the image and optional mapping data in a three-dimensional coordinate system, displaying a three-dimensional image of the body cavity based on the registered image data, and displaying an optional three-dimensional map of the body cavity based on the registered mapping data. The three-dimensional map is preferably superimposed over the three-dimensional image. In one procedure, the three-dimensional image data is generated from within the body cavity, and is also generated ultrasonically. Also, the three-dimensional image data preferably comprises a plurality of two-dimensional data slices. In various procedures, the three-dimensional image data or the three-dimensional mapping data, or both, is dynamically displayed. A functional element is moved within the body cavity by registering the movement of the functional element in the coordinate system, and displaying the movement by superimposing the element over the three-dimensional image and optional map. The treatment element is guided by reference to the display, and a target site is treated, such as by ablation, using the treatment element.

The image data can be registered in a variety of ways. For example, a position of a source of the image data within the three-dimensional coordinate system can be determined, and then the image data can be aligned so that the image data source is coincident with the determined position. Or fiducial points within the image data can be generated, positions of the fiducial points within the three-dimensional coordinate system can be determined, and then the image data can be aligned so that the fiducial points are coincident with the determined positions. Or a set of points can be generated, positions of the points within the three-dimensional coordinate system can be determined, and then the image data can be best fit to the set of points. Registration of the image data can even be accomplished at least partially with user intervention.

In a second aspect of the present invention, a method of performing a procedure within a body cavity, such as a heart chamber, comprises internally generating image data, generating mapping data, and registering and displaying the image and mapping data in a three-dimensional coordinate system. In one procedure, both the image and mapping data is three-dimensional. In another procedure, both the image and mapping data is four-dimensional. Preferably, the image data is generated ultrasonically, and comprises a plurality of two-dimensional data slices. A functional element or a treatment element is moved within the body cavity, the movement is registered in the three-dimensional coordinate system, and subsequently displayed. The functional or treatment element is then guided by reference to the display, and treatment is delivered to a target site, such as, by ablating the site.

In a third aspect of the present invention, a method of performing a procedure within a body cavity, such as a heart chamber, comprises internally generating image data and registering the data in a three-dimensional coordinate system. The image data is preferably three-dimensional. Also, the image data is preferably generated over time and dynamically displayed. In one procedure, the image data is generated ultrasonically, and is a plurality of two-dimensional slices. A functional element is moved within the body cavity, and the movement is registered in the coordinate system and displayed.

In a fourth aspect of the present invention, a method of performing a procedure within a body cavity, which may be a heart chamber, comprises introducing an imaging probe with an imaging element and a first location element into the body cavity, generating image data, introducing a mapping probe having one or more mapping elements and a second location element, generating mapping data, determining the locations of the location elements in a three-dimensional coordinate system, registering the image and mapping data in the three-dimensional coordinate system based on the locations of the location elements, and displaying the registered image and mapping data. The imaging element preferably includes an ultrasound transducer. The location elements may include an array of magnetic sensors, or an ultrasound transducer, which may be wired or wireless. Preferably, the first location element is adjacent the imaging element, and the second location element is adjacent the mapping elements. Additionally, a roving probe having a functional element, or a treatment probe having a treatment element, and a third location element is introduced into the body cavity, the location of the third location element in the coordinate system is determined, the location is registered and displayed, and the functional element, or treatment element, is navigated by reference to the display. In one embodiment, the functional element or treatment element is an ablation electrode.

In a fifth aspect of the present invention, a method of performing a procedure within a body cavity, such as a heart chamber, comprises introducing an imaging probe having an imaging element and a first location element in to the body cavity, generating image data, removing the imaging probe, introducing a mapping probe having one or more mapping elements and a second location element into the body cavity, generating mapping data, introducing a roving probe having a functional element and a third location element into the body cavity, determining the locations of the location elements in a three-dimensional coordinate system, registering and displaying the image data, mapping data, and locations of the functional element in the coordinate system based on the locations of the location elements, and navigating the treatment element by reference to the display while the imaging probe is removed from the body cavity. The mapping probe may or may not be removed prior to, or while the roving probe is being deployed or used. The roving probe or mapping probe may be introduced into the body cavity while the imaging probe is removed. The location elements may include an array of magnetic sensors, or an ultrasound transducer, which may be wired or wireless. Preferably, the first location clement is adjacent the imaging element, the second location element is adjacent the mapping elements, and the third location element is adjacent the functional element. The imaging element is preferably an ultrasound transducer. In one procedure, the roving probe is a treatment probe and the functional element is a treatment element. Here, the treatment element is guided to a target site by reference to the display, and the target site is treated with the treatment element. In one embodiment, the treatment element is an ablation electrode.

In a sixth aspect of the present invention, a system for treating a target site within a body cavity, which may be a heart chamber, comprises an imaging subsystem having an imaging device with an imaging element and image processing circuitry coupled to the imaging element, a mapping subsystem having a mapping device with one or more mapping elements coupled to map processing circuitry, a treatment delivery subsystem having a treatment device with a treatment element coupled to a treatment delivery source, and a three-dimensional coordinate registration subsystem comprising registration processing circuitry coupled to the image and map processing circuitry, three location elements respectively located on the imaging, mapping, and treatment devices, and location processing circuitry coupled between the location elements and the registration processor. In one embodiment, the three location elements are respectively located adjacent the imaging, mapping, and treatment elements. The registration processing circuitry and the location processing circuitry may be integrated into a single processor. Also, the registration, location, image, and mapping processing circuitry may all be embodied in a single processor. In one embodiment, the location elements comprise three orthogonal arrays of magnetic sensors. Here, the registration subsystem includes an antenna, a magnetic field generator coupled between the antenna and the location processing circuitry, and a magnetic field detector coupled between the location sensors and the location processing circuitry. In another embodiment, the location elements comprise an ultrasound transducer. With this embodiment, the location processing component includes ultrasound transducers, a first ultrasound transceiver coupled between the ultrasound transducers and the location processing circuitry, and a second ultrasound transceiver coupled between the ultrasound transducers and the location processing circuitry.

A display is preferably coupled to the registration subsystem. The imaging element may be an ultrasound transducer, and the imaging device may be an imaging catheter. In one embodiment, the treatment element is an ablation electrode, and the treatment delivery source comprises an ablation energy source.

In a seventh aspect of the present invention, a system for treating a target site within a body cavity, which may be a heart chamber, includes an imaging subsystem having an imaging catheter with an imaging element and image processing circuitry coupled to the imaging element, and a three-dimensional coordinate registration subsystem having registration processing circuitry coupled to the image processing circuitry, a location element on the imaging catheter, and location processing circuitry coupled between the location element and the registration processing circuitry. The system also includes a mapping subsystem having a mapping device with one or more mapping elements coupled to map processing circuitry. The registration processing circuitry is coupled to the map processing circuitry, and also includes another location element on the mapping device coupled to the location processing circuitry. The location element on the imaging catheter is preferably adjacent the imaging element. In one embodiment, the location element includes an orthogonal array of magnetic sensors, and the registration subsystem includes an antenna, a magnetic field generator coupled between the antenna and the location processing circuitry, and a magnetic field detector coupled between the magnetic sensors and the location processing circuitry. In another embodiment, the location element includes an ultrasound transducer, and the registration subsystem includes one or more ultrasound transducers, a first ultrasound transceiver coupled between the one or more ultrasound transducers and the location processing circuitry, and a second ultrasound transceiver coupled between the ultrasound transducer and the location processing circuitry.

In one embodiment, the imaging element comprises an ultrasound transducer, and the imaging catheter is coupled to a pullback device. In one embodiment, the registration processing circuitry and the location processing circuitry are integrated into a single processor. A display is included that is coupled to the registration subsystem.

In an eighth aspect of the present inventions, a system for treating a target site within a body cavity, which may be a heart chamber, includes an imaging subsystem comprising an imaging device configured for generating image data of the body cavity, a probe configured to be moved within the body cavity, and a three-dimensional coordinate registration subsystem configured for registering the image data and the location of the probe within a three-dimensional coordinate system. The probe may be, e.g., a treatment device having a treatment element, in which case, the system may further comprise a treatment delivery subsystem comprising the treatment device and a treatment delivery source coupled to the treatment element. Or the probe may be, e.g., a mapping device configured for generating mapping data, in which case, the system may comprise a mapping subsystem comprising the mapping device, wherein the registration subsystem is further configured for registering the mapping data within the three-dimensional coordinate system. The system may further comprise a display coupled to the registration subsystem. The imaging device can take various forms. For example, the imaging device can be an internal imaging device, e.g., a real time 3-D imaging catheter, or an external imaging device, e.g., a computerized axial tomography device or magnetic resonance imaging device. The registration subsystem can register the image data within the three-dimensional coordinate system in a variety of ways, including using the registration steps described above.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS



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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20120277574 A1
Publish Date
11/01/2012
Document #
13461589
File Date
05/01/2012
USPTO Class
600421
Other USPTO Classes
600424
International Class
/
Drawings
15



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