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Pyrazine compounds as phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors

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20120277209 patent thumbnailZoom

Pyrazine compounds as phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors


or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein m, n, p, R1, R2, R3, R4, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X8, X9, X10, X11, Y and Z are defined in the specification, and compositions containing them, and processes for preparing such compounds. Provided herein also are methods of treating disorders or diseases treatable by inhibition of PDE10, such as obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the like. Pyrazine compounds of formula (I):

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Inventors: Jennifer R. Allen, Matthew P. Bourbeau, Ning Chen, Essa Hu, Roxanne Kunz, Shannon Rumfelt
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120277209 - Class: 51421018 (USPTO) - 11/01/12 - Class 514 
Drug, Bio-affecting And Body Treating Compositions > Designated Organic Active Ingredient Containing (doai) >Heterocyclic Carbon Compounds Containing A Hetero Ring Having Chalcogen (i.e., O,s,se Or Te) Or Nitrogen As The Only Ring Hetero Atoms Doai >Hetero Ring Is Four-membered And Includes At Least One Ring Nitrogen >Having -c(=x)-, Wherein X Is Chalcogen, Bonded Directly To The Four-membered Hetero Ring >Additional Hetero Ring Attached Directly Or Indirectly To The Four-membered Hetero Ring By Nonionic Bonding



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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120277209, Pyrazine compounds as phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors.

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CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application application is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 13/042,421, filed Mar. 7, 2011, which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 12/619,574, filed 16 Nov., 2009, which claims the benefit from U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/114,567, filed 14 Nov., 2008, and U.S. Provisional Application No. 61/166,212, filed 2 Apr. 2009, each of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

Provided herein are certain pyrazine compounds that are PDE10 inhibitors, pharmaceutical compositions containing such compounds, and processes for preparing such compounds. Provided herein also are methods of treating disorders or diseases treatable by inhibition of PDE10, such as obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and the like.

BACKGROUND

Neurotransmitters and hormones, as well as other types of extracellular signals such as light and odors, create intracellular signals by altering the amounts of cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cAMP and cGMP) within cells. These intracellular messengers alter the functions of many intracellular proteins. Cyclic AMP regulates the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). PKA phosphorylates and regulates the function of many types of proteins, including ion channels, enzymes, and transcription factors. Downstream mediators of cGMP signaling also include kinases and ion channels. In addition to actions mediated by kinases, cAMP and cGMP bind directly to some cell proteins and directly regulate their activities.

Cyclic nucleotides are produced from the actions of adenylyl cyclase and guanylyl cyclase, which convert ATP to cAMP and GTP to cGMP. Extracellular signals, often through the actions of G protein-coupled receptors, regulate the activities of the cyclases. Alternatively, the amount of cAMP and cGMP may be altered by regulating the activities of the enzymes that degrade cyclic nucleotides. Cell homeostasis is maintained by the rapid degradation of cyclic nucleotides after stimulus-induced increases. The enzymes that degrade cyclic nucleotides are called 3′,5′-cyclic nucleotide-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs).

Eleven PDE gene families (PDE1-PDE11) have been identified based on their distinct amino acid sequences, catalytic and regulatory characteristics, and sensitivity to small molecule inhibitors. These families are coded for by 21 genes; and further multiple splice variants are transcribed from many of these genes. Expression patterns of each of the gene families are distinct. PDEs differ with respect to their affinity for cAMP and cGMP. Activities of different PDEs are regulated by different signals. For example, PDE1 is stimulated by Ca2+/calmodulin. PDE2 activity is stimulated by cGMP. PDE3 is inhibited by cGMP. PDE4 is cAMP specific and is specifically inhibited by rolipram. PDE5 is cGMP-specific. PDE6 is expressed in retina.

PDE10 sequences were identified by using bioinformatics and sequence information from other PDE gene families (Fujishige et al., J. Biol. Chem. 274:18438-18445, 1999; Loughney et al., Gene 234:109-117, 1999; Soderling et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:7071-7076, 1999). The PDE10 gene family is distinguished based on its amino acid sequence, functional properties and tissue distribution. The human PDE10 gene is large, over 200 kb, with up to 24 exons coding for each of the splice variants. The amino acid sequence is characterized by two GAF domains (which bind cGMP), a catalytic region, and alternatively spliced N and C termini. Numerous splice variants are possible because at least three alternative exons encode N termini and two exons encode C-termini. PDE10A1 is a 779 amino acid protein that hydrolyzes both cAMP and cGMP. The Km values for cAMP and cGMP are 0.05 and 3.0 micromolar, respectively. In addition to human variants, several variants with high homology have been isolated from both rat and mouse tissues and sequence banks.

PDE10 RNA transcripts were initially detected in human testis and brain. Subsequent immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the highest levels of PDE10 are expressed in the basal ganglia. Specifically, striatal neurons in the olfactory tubercle, caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens are enriched in PDE10. Western blots did not reveal the expression of PDE10 in other brain tissues, although immunoprecipitation of the PDE10 complex was possible in hippocampal and cortical tissues. This suggests that the expression level of PDE10 in these other tissues is 100-fold less than in striatal neurons. Expression in hippocampus is limited to the cell bodies, whereas PDE10 is expressed in terminals, dendrites and axons of striatal neurons.

The tissue distribution of PDE10 indicates that PDE10 inhibitors can be used to raise levels of cAMP and/or cGMP within cells that express the PDE10 enzyme, for example, in neurons that comprise the basal ganglia and therefore would be useful in treating a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions involving the basal ganglia such as obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and the like.

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

The present invention comprises a new class of pyrazine compounds useful in the treatment of diseases, such as PDE10-mediated diseases and other maladies, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder. Accordingly, the invention also comprises pharmaceutical compositions comprising the compounds, methods for the treatment of PDE10-mediated diseases and other maladies, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or obsessive-compulsive disorder, using the compounds and compositions of the invention, and intermediates and processes useful for the preparation of the compounds of the invention.

The compounds of the invention are represented by the following general structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein m, n, p, R1, R2, R3, R4, X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7, X8, X9, X10, X11, Y and Z are defined below.

Other compounds of the invention are represented by the following general structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein m, n, p, y, R2, R3, R4, R9, X1, X5, and Z are defined below.

Other compounds of the invention are represented by the following general structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein m, n, p, y, R2, R3, R4, R9, X1, X5, and Z are defined below.

Other compounds of the invention are represented by the following general structure:

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, wherein m, n, R1, R2, R3, R4, X1, X2, X3, X4, Y and Z are defined below.

The foregoing merely summarizes certain aspects of the invention and is not intended, nor should it be construed, as limiting the invention in any way. All patents, patent applications and other publications recited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

OF THE INVENTION

One aspect of the current invention relates to compounds having the general structure of formula (I):

or any pharmaceutically-acceptable salt thereof, wherein:

Each of X1, X2, X3, X4, and X5 is independently N or C; wherein no more than two of X1, X2, X3 and X4 are N;

Each of X6, X7, X9, and X10 is independently N or C; each of X8 and X11 is C; wherein no more than three of X6, X7, X9, and X10 are N;

Y is NH, NR5, CH(OH), C(═O), —CRaRb, or CF2; or alternatively Y and R3 form a 5- to 6-membered ring fused to the ring containing both said Y and R3;

Z is NH, NR6, S, SO, SO2, O, or C; wherein Z is only C when X5 is N;

m is 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4;

n is 0, 1 or 2;

p is 0, 1 or 2;

R1 is selected from the group consisting of

(a) H, F, Cl, Br, I, C1-8alk, C1-4haloalk, —ORa, —NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —C(═O)NRaRa, —C(═O)Rd, —C(═O)—O—Ra, —ORc, —NRaRc, —N(Rc)C(═O)Rb, —N(Ra)C(═O)Rc, —C(═O)NRaRb, or —C(═O)NRaRc;

(b) a saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-membered monocyclic ring or a saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, or 12-membered bicyclic ring, wherein each said ring contains 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 N atoms and 0, 1, or 2 atoms selected from O and S, and wherein each said ring is substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 groups selected from F, Cl, Br, C1-6alk, C1-4haloalk, —ORa, —OC1-4haloalk, CN, —C(═O)Rb, —C(═O)ORa, —C(═O)NRaRa, —C(═NRa)NRaRa, —OC(═O)Rb, —OC(═O)NRaRa, —OC2-6alkNRaRa, —OC2-6alkORa, —SRa, —S(═O)Rb, —S(═O)2Rb, —S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaRa, —NRaRc, —N(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —N(Ra)C(═O)ORb, —N(Ra)C(═O)NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═NRa)NRaRa, —N(Ra)S(═O)2Rb, —N(Ra)S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkNRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkORa, —C1-6alkNRaRa, —C1-6alkORa, —C1-6alkN(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkOC(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkC(═O)NRaRa, —C1-6alkC(═O)ORa, R7, R8 and oxo;

(c) group -L-R7, wherein L is CH2, NH, N(C1-4alk), —C(═O)NRaRa(C1-4alk), O, S, S═O, or S(═O)2; or

(d) C1-6alk substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 groups selected from F, Cl, Br, C1-6alk, C1-4haloalk, —ORa, —OC1-4haloalk, CN, —C(═O)Rb, —C(═O)ORb, —C(═O)NRaRa, —C(═NRa)NRaRa, —OC(═O)Rb, —OC(═O)NRaRa, —OC2-6alkNRaRa, —OC2-6alkORa, —SRa, —S(═O)Rb, —S(═O)2Rb, —S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —N(Ra)C(═O)ORb, —N(Ra)C(═O)NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═NRa)NRaRa, —N(Ra)S(═O)2Rb, —N(Ra)S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkNRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkORa, —C1-6alkNRaRa, —C1-6alkORa, R8 and oxo;

R2 is, independently in each instance, F, Cl, Br, CN, OH, OC1-4alk, C1-4alk or C1-4haloalk;

R3 is, independently in each instance, F, Cl, Br, CN, OH, OC1-4alk, C1-4alk, C1-4haloalk, or —NRaC1-4alk;

R4 is independently in each instance, F, Cl, CH3, CN, CF3, CHF2, CH2F, ORa, or NRaRa; R5 is C1-8alk, C1-4haloalk, —C(═O)Rb, or Rc;

R6 is C1-4alk, C1-4haloalk, —C(═O)Rb, or Rc;

R7 is a saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-membered monocyclic or 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, or 12-membered bicyclic ring containing 0, 1, 2 or 3 N atoms and 0 or 1 atoms selected from O and S, which is substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 groups selected from F, Cl, Br, C1-6alk, C1-4haloalk, —ORa, —OC1-4haloalk, CN, —C(═O)Rb, —C(═O)ORa, —C(═O)NRaRa, —C(═NRa)NRaRa, —OC(═O)Rb, —OC(═O)NRaRa, —OC2-6alkNRaRa, —OC2-6alkORa, —SRa, —S(═O)Rb, —S(═O)2Rb, —S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —N(Ra)C(═O)ORb, —N(Ra)C(═O)NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═NRa)NRaRa, —N(Ra)S(═O)2Rb, —N(Ra)S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkNRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkORa, —C1-6alkNRaRa, —C1-6alkORa, —C1-6alkN(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkOC(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkC(═O)NRaRa, —C1-6alkC(═O)ORa, R8 and oxo;

R8 is a C1-6alk substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 groups selected from F, Cl, Br, C1-6alk, C1-4haloalk, —ORa, —OC1-4haloalk, CN, —C(═O)Rb, —C(═O)ORa, —C(═O)NRaRa, —C(═NRa)NRaRa, —OC(═O)Rb, —OC(═O)NRaRa, —OC2-6alkNRaRa, —OC2-6alkORa, —SRa, —S(═O)Rb, —S(═O)2Rb, —S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —N(Ra)C(═O)ORb, —N(Ra)C(═O)NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═NRa)NRaRa, —N(Ra)S(═O)2Rb, —N(Ra)S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkNRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkORa, —C1-6alkNRaRa, —C1-6alkORa, —C1-6alkN(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkOC(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkC(═O)NRaRa, —C1-6alkC(═O)ORa and oxo;

Ra is independently, at each instance, H or Rb;

Rb is independently, at each instance, phenyl, benzyl or C1-6alk, the phenyl, benzyl and C1-6alk being substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 substituents selected from halo, C1-4alk, C1-3haloalk, —OH, —OC1-4alk, —NH2, —NHC1-4alk, —OC(═O)C1-4alk, or —N(C1-4alk)C1-4alk;

Rc is a C0-4alk-linked saturated, partially-saturated or unsaturated 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, or 7-membered monocyclic or 8-, 9-, 10-, 11-, or 12-membered bicyclic ring containing 0, 1, 2 or 3 N atoms and 0 or 1 atom selected from O and S, which is substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 groups selected from F, Cl, Br, C1-6alk, C1-4haloalk, R7, —ORa, —OC1-4haloalk, CN, —C(═O)Rb, —C(═O)ORa, —C(═O)NRaRa, —C(═NRa)NRaRa, —OC(═O)Rb, —OC(═O)NRaRa, —OC2-6alkNRaRa, —OC2-6alkORa, —SRa, —S(═O)Rb, —S(═O)2Rb, —S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —N(Ra)C(═O)ORb, —N(Ra)C(═O)NRaRa, —N(Ra)C(═NRa)NRaRa, —N(Ra)S(═O)2Rb, —N(Ra)S(═O)2NRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkNRaRa, —NRaC2-6alkORa, —C1-6alkNRaRa, —C1-6alkORa, —C1-6alkN(Ra)C(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkOC(═O)Rb, —C1-6alkC(═O)NRaRa, —C1-6alkC(═O)ORa and oxo; and

Rd is a nitrogen-linked saturated, partially-saturated, or unsaturated 5-, 6- or 7-membered ring heterocycle containing the linking nitrogen and 0, 1 or 2 additional nitrogen atoms and containing 0 or 1 sulfur or oxygen atom, the heterocycle being substituted by 0, 1, 2 or 3 substituents selected from oxo, halo, C1-4alk, C1-3haloalk, —OC1-4alk, —NH2, —NHC1-4alk, and —N(C1-4alk)C1-4alk.

In another embodiment, the group:

is selected from the group consisting of;

In another embodiment, the group

In another embodiment, the group

In another embodiment, the group

In another embodiment, the group



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Application #
US 20120277209 A1
Publish Date
11/01/2012
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File Date
12/18/2014
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Drug, Bio-affecting And Body Treating Compositions   Designated Organic Active Ingredient Containing (doai)   Heterocyclic Carbon Compounds Containing A Hetero Ring Having Chalcogen (i.e., O,s,se Or Te) Or Nitrogen As The Only Ring Hetero Atoms Doai   Hetero Ring Is Four-membered And Includes At Least One Ring Nitrogen   Having -c(=x)-, Wherein X Is Chalcogen, Bonded Directly To The Four-membered Hetero Ring   Additional Hetero Ring Attached Directly Or Indirectly To The Four-membered Hetero Ring By Nonionic Bonding