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Inhibitors of iap

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Inhibitors of iap


The invention provides novel inhibitors of IAP that are useful as therapeutic agents for treating malignancies where the compounds have the general formula (I): wherein Q, X1, X2, Y, Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, R1, R2, R3, R3′, R4, R4′, R5, R6, R6′, and n are as described herein.


Inventors: Michael F. T. Koehler, Lewis Gazzard, Vickie Hsiao-Wei Tsui
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120270886 - Class: 5142601 (USPTO) - 10/25/12 - Class 514 
Drug, Bio-affecting And Body Treating Compositions > Designated Organic Active Ingredient Containing (doai) >Heterocyclic Carbon Compounds Containing A Hetero Ring Having Chalcogen (i.e., O,s,se Or Te) Or Nitrogen As The Only Ring Hetero Atoms Doai >Hetero Ring Is Six-membered Consisting Of Two Nitrogens And Four Carbon Atoms (e.g., Pyridazines, Etc.) >1,4-diazine As One Of The Cyclos >Polycyclo Ring System Having 1,3-diazine As One Of The Cyclos >A Ring Nitrogen Is Shared By The Two Cyclos Of The Bicyclo Ring System (e.g., Pyrrolo [1,2-a]pyrimidine, Imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine, Etc.)

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120270886, Inhibitors of iap.

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This application claims priority to provisional U.S. patent application No. 60/751,801 filed Dec. 19, 2005, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to organic compounds useful for therapy and/or prophylax is in a mammal, and in particular to inhibitors of IAP proteins useful for treating cancers.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a genetically and biochemically regulated mechanism that plays an important role in development and homeostasis in invertebrates as well as vertebrates. Aberrancies in apoptosis that lead to premature cell death have been linked to a variety of developmental disorders. Deficiencies in apoptosis that result in the lack of cell death have been linked to cancer and chronic viral infections (Thompson et al., (1995) Science 267, 1456-1462).

One of the key effector molecules in apoptosis are the caspases (cysteine containing aspartate specific proteases). Caspases are strong proteases, cleaving after aspartic acid residues and once activated, digest vital cell proteins from within the cell. Since caspases are such strong proteases, tight control of this family of proteins is necessary to prevent premature cell death. In general, caspases are synthesized as largely inactive zymogens that require proteolytic processing in order to be active. This proteolytic processing is only one of the ways in which caspases are regulated. The second mechanism is through a family of proteins that bind and inhibit caspases.

A family of molecules that inhibit caspases are the Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) (Deveraux et al., J Clin Immunol (1999), 19:388-398). IAPs were originally discovered in baculovirus by their functional ability to substitute for P35 protein, an anti-apoptotic gene (Crook et al. (1993) J Virology 67, 2168-2174). IAPs have been described in organisms ranging from Drosophila to human. Regardless of their origin, structurally, IAPs comprise one to three Baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, and most of them also possess a carboxyl-terminal RING finger motif. The BIR domain itself is a zinc binding domain of about 70 residues comprising 4 alpha-helices and 3 beta strands, with cysteine and histidine residues that coordinate the zinc ion (Hinds et al., (1999) Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 648-651). It is the BIR domain that is believed to cause the anti-apoptotic effect by inhibiting the caspases and thus inhibiting apoptosis. As an example, human X-chromosome linked IAP (XIAP) inhibits caspase 3, caspase 7 and the Apaf-1-cytochrome C mediated activation of caspase 9 (Deveraux et al., (1998) EMBO J. 17, 2215-2223). Caspases 3 and 7 are inhibited by the BIR2 domain of XIAP, while the BIR3 domain of XIAP is responsible for the inhibition of caspase 9 activity. XIAP is expressed ubiquitously in most adult and fetal tissues (Liston et al, Nature, 1996, 379(6563):349), and is overexpressed in a number of tumor cell lines of the NCI 60 cell line panel (Fong et al, Genomics, 2000, 70:113; Tamm et al, Clin. Cancer Res. 2000, 6(5):1796). Overexpression of XIAP in tumor cells has been demonstrated to confer protection against a variety of pro-apoptotic stimuli and promotes resistance to chemotherapy (LaCasse et al, Oncogene, 1998, 17(25):3247). Consistent with this, a strong correlation between XIAP protein levels and survival has been demonstrated for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (Tamm et al, supra). Down-regulation of XIAP expression by antisense oligonucleotides has been shown to sensitize tumor cells to death induced by a wide range of pro-apoptotic agents, both in vitro and in vivo (Sasaki et al, Cancer Res., 2000, 60(20):5659; Lin et al, Biochem J., 2001, 353:299; Hu et al, Clin. Cancer Res., 2003, 9(7):2826). Smac/DIABLO-derived peptides have also been demonstrated to sensitize a number of different tumor cell lines to apoptosis induced by a variety of pro-apoptotic drugs (Arnt et al, J. Biol. Chem., 2002, 277(46):44236; Fulda et al, Nature Med., 2002, 8(8):808; Guo et al, Blood, 2002, 99(9):3419; Vucic et al, J. Biol. Chem., 2002, 277(14):12275; Yang et al, Cancer Res., 2003, 63(4):831).

Melanoma IAP (ML-IAP) is an IAP not detectable in most normal adult tissues but is strongly upregulated in melanoma (Vucic et al., (2000) Current Bio 10:1359-1366). Determination of protein structure demonstrated significant homology of the ML-IAP BIR and RING finger domains to corresponding domains present in human XIAP, C-IAP1 and C-IAP2. The BIR domain of ML-IAP appears to have the most similarities to the BIR2 and BIR3 of XIAP, C-IAP1 and C-IAP2, and appears to be responsible for the inhibition of apoptosis, as determined by deletional analysis. Furthermore, Vucic et al., demonstrated that ML-IAP could inhibit chemotherapeutic agent induced apoptosis. Agents such as adriamycin and 4-tertiary butylphenol (4-TBP) were tested in a cell culture system of melanomas overexpressing ML-IAP and the chemotherapeutic agents were significantly less effective in killing the cells when compared to a normal melanocyte control. The mechanism by which ML-IAP produces an anti-apoptotic activity is in part through inhibition of caspase 3 and 9. ML-IAP did not effectively inhibit caspases 1, 2, 6, or 8.

Since apoptosis is a strictly controlled pathway with multiple interacting factors, the discovery that IAPs themselves are regulated was not unusual. In the fruit fly Drosophila, the Reaper (rpr), Head Involution Defective (hid) and GRIM proteins physically interact with and inhibit the anti-apoptotic activity of the Drosophila family of IAPs. In the mammal, the proteins SMAC/DIABLO act to block the IAPs and allow apoptosis to proceed. It was shown that during normal apoptosis, SMAC is processed into an active form and is released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm where it physically binds to IAPs and prevents the IAP from binding to a caspase. This inhibition of the IAP allows the caspase to remain active and thus proceed with apoptosis. Interestingly, sequence homology between the IAP inhibitors shows that there is a four amino acid motif in the N-terminus of the processed, active proteins. This tetrapeptide appears to bind into a hydrophobic pocket in the BIR domain and disrupts the BIR domain binding to caspases (Chai et al., (2000) Nature 406:855-862, Liu et al., (2000) Nature 408:1004-1008, Wu et al., (2000) Nature 408 1008-1012).

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

In one aspect of the present invention there is provided novel inhibitors of IAP proteins having the general formula (I)

wherein X1 and X2 are each independently O or S; Y is a bond, (CR7R7)n, O or S; Z1 is NR8, O, S, SO or SO2; Z2, Z3 and Z4 are independently CQ or N; Q is H, halogen, hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, nitro, cyano, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle; wherein one or more CH2 or CH groups of an alkyl is optionally replaced with —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8)—, —C(O)—, —C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(O)—, —SO2—NR8—, —NR8—SO2—, —NR8—C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—, —C(O)—O— or —O—C(O)—; and an alkyl, carbocycle and heterocycle is optionally substituted with one or more hydroxyl, alkoxy, acyl, halogen, mercapto, oxo, carboxyl, acyl, halo-substituted alkyl, amino, cyano nitro, amidino, guanidino an optionally substituted carbocycle or an optionally substituted heterocycle; R1 is H, OH or alkyl; or R1 and R2 together form a 5-8 member heterocycle; R2 is alkyl, a carbocycle, carbocyclylalkyl, a heterocycle or heterocyclylalkyl each optionally substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, oxo, thione, mercapto, carboxyl, alkyl, haloalkyl, acyl, alkoxy, alkylthio, sulfonyl, amino and nitro, wherein said alkyl, acyl, alkoxy, alkylthio and sulfonyl are optionally substituted with hydroxy, mercapto, halogen, amino, alkoxy, hydroxyalkoxy and alkoxyalkoxy; R3 is H or alkyl optionally substituted with halogen or hydroxyl; or R3 and R4 together form a 3-6 heterocycle; R3′ is H, or R3 and R3′ together foil a 3-6 carbocycle; R4 and R4′ are independently H, hydroxyl, amino, alkyl, carbocycle, carbocycloalkyl, carbocycloalkyloxy, carbocycloalkyloxycarbonyl, heterocycle, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyloxy or heterocycloalkyloxycarbonyl; wherein each alkyl, carbocycloalkyl, carbocycloalkyloxy, carbocycloalkyloxycarbonyl, heterocycle, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyloxy and heterocycloalkyloxycarbonyl is optionally substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, mercapto, carboxyl, alkyl, alkoxy, amino, imino and nitro; or R4 and R4′ together form a heterocycle; R5 is H or alkyl; R6, and R6′ are each independently H, alkyl, aryl or aralkyl; R7 is H, cyano, hydroxyl, mercapto, halogen, nitro, carboxyl, amidino, guanidino, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle or —U—V; wherein U is —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8)—, —C(O)—, —C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(O)—, —SO2—NR8—, —NR8—SO2—, —NR8—C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—, —C(O)—O— or —O—C(O)— and V is alkyl, a carbocycle or a heterocycle; and wherein one or more CH2 or CH groups of an alkyl is optionally replaced with —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8)—, —C(O)—, —C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(O)—, —SO2—NR8—, —NR8—SO2—, —NR8—C(O)—NR8—, —C(O)—O— or —O—C(O)—; and an alkyl, carbocycle and heterocycle is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, alkoxy, acyl, halogen, mercapto, oxo, carboxyl, acyl, halo-substituted alkyl, amino, cyano nitro, amidino, guanidino an optionally substituted carbocycle or an optionally substituted heterocycle; R8 is H, alkyl, a carbocycle or a heterocycle wherein one or more CH2 or CH groups of said alkyl is optionally replaced with —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8), or —C(O)—; and said alkyl, carbocycle and heterocycle is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, alkoxy, acyl, halogen, mercapto, oxo (═O), carboxyl, acyl, halo-substituted alkyl, amino, cyano nitro, amidino, guanidino an optionally substituted carbocycle or an optionally substituted heterocycle; and n is 0 to 4.

In another aspect of the invention, there are provided compositions comprising compounds of formula I and a carrier, diluent or excipient.

In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of inducing apoptosis in a cell comprising introducing into said cell a compound of formula I.

In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of sensitizing a cell to an apoptotic signal comprising introducing into said cell a compound of formula I.

In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method for inhibiting the binding of an IAP protein to a caspase protein comprising contacting said IAP protein with a compound of formula I.

In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method for treating a disease or condition associated with the overexpression of an IAP protein in a mammal, comprising administering to said mammal an effective amount of a compound of formula I.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

“Acyl” means a carbonyl containing substituent represented by the formula —C(O)—R in which R is H, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle, carbocycle-substituted alkyl or heterocycle-substituted alkyl wherein the alkyl, alkoxy, carbocycle and heterocycle are as defined herein. Acyl groups include alkanoyl (e.g. acetyl), aroyl (e.g. benzoyl), and heteroaroyl.

“Alkyl” means a branched or unbranched, saturated or unsaturated (i.e. alkenyl, alkynyl) aliphatic hydrocarbon group, having up to 12 carbon atoms unless otherwise specified. When used as part of another term, for example “alkylamino”, the alkyl portion may be a saturated hydrocarbon chain, however also includes unsaturated hydrocarbon carbon chains such as “alkenylamino” and “alkynylamino. Examples of particular alkyl groups are methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, 2-methylbutyl, 2,2-dimethylpropyl, n-hexyl, 2-methylpentyl, 2,2-dimethylbutyl, n-heptyl, 3-heptyl, 2-methylhexyl, and the like. The terms “lower alkyl” “C1-C4 alkyl” and “alkyl of 1 to 4 carbon atoms” are synonymous and used interchangeably to mean methyl, ethyl, 1-propyl, isopropyl, cyclopropyl, 1-butyl, sec-butyl or t-butyl. Unless specified, substituted, alkyl groups may contain one, for example two, three or four substituents which may be the same or different. Examples of substituents are, unless otherwise defined, halogen, amino, hydroxyl, protected hydroxyl, mercapto, carboxy, alkoxy, nitro, cyano, amidino, guanidino, urea, sulfonyl, sulfinyl, aminosulfonyl, alkylsulfonylamino, arylsulfonylamino, aminocarbonyl, acylamino, alkoxy, acyl, acyloxy, a carbocycle, a heterocycle. Examples of the above substituted alkyl groups include, but are not limited to; cyanomethyl, nitromethyl, hydroxymethyl, trityloxymethyl, propionyloxymethyl, aminomethyl, carboxymethyl, carboxyethyl, carboxypropyl, alkyloxycarbonylmethyl, allyloxycarbonylaminomethyl, carbamoyloxymethyl, methoxymethyl, ethoxymethyl, t-b utoxymethyl, acetoxymethyl, chloromethyl, bromomethyl, iodomethyl, trifluoromethyl, 6-hydroxyhexyl, 2,4-dichloro(n-butyl), 2-amino(iso-propyl), 2-carbamoyloxyethyl and the like. The alkyl group may also be substituted with a carbo cycle group. Examples include cyclopropylmethyl, cyclobutylmethyl, cyclopentylmethyl, and cyclohexylmethyl groups, as well as the corresponding -ethyl, -propyl, -butyl, -pentyl, -hexyl groups, etc. Substituted alkyls include substituted methyls e.g. a methyl group substituted by the same substituents as the “substituted Cn-Cm alkyl” group. Examples of the substituted methyl group include groups such as hydroxymethyl, protected hydroxymethyl (e.g. tetrahydropyranyloxymethyl), acetoxymethyl, carbamoyloxymethyl, trifluoromethyl, chloromethyl, carboxymethyl, bromomethyl and iodomethyl.

“Amidine” means the group —C(NH)—NHR in which R is H, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle, carbocycle-substituted alkyl or heterocycle-substituted alkyl wherein the alkyl, alkoxy, carbocycle and heterocycle are as defined herein. A particular amidine is the group —NH—C(NH)—NH2.

“Amino” means primary (i.e. —NH2), secondary (i.e. —NRH) and tertiary (i.e. —NRR) amines in which R is H, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle, carbocycle-substituted alkyl or heterocycle-substituted alkyl wherein the alkyl, alkoxy, carbocycle and heterocycle are as defined herein. Particular secondary and tertiary amines are alkylamine, dialkylamine, arylamine, diarylamine, aralkylamine and diaralkylamine wherein the alkyl is as herein defined and optionally substituted. Particular secondary and tertiary amines are methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, isopropylamine, phenylamine, benzylamine dimethylamine, diethylamine, dipropylamine and disopropylamine.

“Amino-protecting group” as used herein refers to a derivative of the groups commonly employed to block or protect an amino group while reactions are carried out on other functional groups on the compound. Examples of such protecting groups include carbamates, amides, alkyl and aryl groups, imines, as well as many N-heteroatom derivatives which can be removed to regenerate the desired amine group. Particular amino protecting groups are Boc, Fmoc and Cbz. Further examples of these groups are found in T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, “Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis”, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1991, chapter 7; E. Haslam, “Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry”, J. G. W. McOmie, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, N.Y., 1973, Chapter 5, and T. W. Greene, “Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis”, John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y., 1981. The term “protected amino” refers to an amino group substituted with one of the above amino-protecting groups.

“Aryl” when used alone or as part of another term means a carbocyclic aromatic group whether or not fused having the number of carbon atoms designated or if no number is designated, up to 14 carbon atoms. Particular aryl groups are phenyl, naphthyl, biphenyl, phenanthrenyl, naphthacenyl, and the like (see e.g. Lang\'s Handbook of Chemistry (Dean, J. A., ed) 13th ed. Table 7-2 [1985]). A particular aryl is phenyl. Substituted phenyl or substituted aryl means a phenyl group or aryl group substituted with one, two, three, four or five, for example 1-2, 1-3 or 1-4 substituents chosen, unless otherwise specified, from halogen (F, Cl, Br, I), hydroxy, protected hydroxy, cyano, nitro, alkyl (for example C1-C6 alkyl), alkoxy (for example C1-C6 alkoxy), benzyloxy, carboxy, protected carboxy, carboxymethyl, protected carboxymethyl, hydroxymethyl, protected hydroxymethyl, aminomethyl, protected aminomethyl, trifluoromethyl, alkylsulfonylamino, alkylsulfonylaminoalkyl, arylsulfonylamino, arylsulonylaminoalkyl, heterocyclylsulfonylamino, heterocyclylsulfonylaminoalkyl, heterocyclyl, aryl, or other groups specified. One or more methyne (CH) and/or methylene (CH2) groups in these substituents may in turn be substituted with a similar group as those denoted above. Examples of the term “substituted phenyl” includes but is not limited to a mono- or di(halo)phenyl group such as 2-chlorophenyl, 2-bromophenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, 2,6-dichlorophenyl, 2,5-dichlorophenyl, 3,4-dichlorophenyl, 3-chlorophenyl, 3-bromophenyl, 4-bromophenyl, 3,4-dibromophenyl, 3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl, 2-fluorophenyl and the like; a mono- or di(hydroxy)phenyl group such as 4-hydroxyphenyl, 3-hydroxyphenyl, 2,4-dihydroxyphenyl, the protected-hydroxy derivatives thereof and the like; a nitrophenyl group such as 3- or 4-nitrophenyl; a cyanophenyl group, for example, 4-cyanophenyl; a mono- or di(lower alkyl)phenyl group such as 4-methylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, 2-methylphenyl, 4-(iso-propyl)phenyl, 4-ethylphenyl, 3-(n-propyl)phenyl and the like; a mono or di(alkoxy)phenyl group, for example, 3,4-dimethoxyphenyl, 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxyphenyl, 3-methoxy-4-(1-chloromethyl)benzyloxy-phenyl, 3-ethoxyphenyl, 4-(isopropoxy)phenyl, 4-(t-butoxy)phenyl, 3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl and the like; 3- or 4-trifluoromethylphenyl; a mono- or dicarboxyphenyl or (protected carboxy)phenyl group such 4-carboxyphenyl; a mono- or di(hydroxymethyl)phenyl or (protected hydroxymethyl)phenyl such as 3-(protected hydroxymethyl)phenyl or 3,4-di(hydroxymethyl)phenyl; a mono- or di(aminomethyl)phenyl or (protected aminomethyl)phenyl such as 2-(aminomethyl)phenyl or 2,4-(protected aminomethyl)phenyl; or a mono- or di(N-(methylsulfonylamino))phenyl such as 3-(N-methylsulfonylamino))phenyl. Also, the term “substituted phenyl” represents disubstituted phenyl groups where the substituents are different, for example, 3-methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl, 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl, 2-methoxy-4-bromophenyl, 4-ethyl-2-hydroxyphenyl, 3-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl, 2-hydroxy-4-chlorophenyl, and the like, as well as trisubstituted phenyl groups where the substituents are different, for example 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxy-6-methyl sulfonylamino, 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxy-6-phenyl sulfonylamino, and tetrasubstituted phenyl groups where the substituents are different such as 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxy-5-methyl-6-phenyl sulfonylamino. Particular substituted phenyl groups include the 2-chlorophenyl, 2-aminophenyl, 2-bromophenyl, 3-methoxyphenyl, 3-ethoxy-phenyl, 4-benzyloxyphenyl, 4-methoxyphenyl, 3-ethoxy-4-benzyloxyphenyl, 3,4-diethoxyphenyl, 3-methoxy-4-benzyloxyphenyl, 3-methoxy-4-(1-chloromethyl)benzyloxy-phenyl, 3-methoxy-4-(1-chloromethyl)benzyloxy-6-methyl sulfonyl aminophenyl groups. Fused aryl rings may also be substituted with any, for example 1, 2 or 3, of the substituents specified herein in the same manner as substituted alkyl groups.

“Carbocyclyl”, “carbocyclylic”, “carbocycle” and “carbocyclo” alone and when used as a moiety in a complex group such as a carbocycloalkyl group, refers to a mono-, bi-, or tricyclic aliphatic ring having 3 to 14 carbon atoms, for example 3 to 7 carbon atoms, which may be saturated or unsaturated, aromatic or non-aromatic. Particular saturated carbocyclic groups are cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl and cyclohexyl groups. A particular saturated carbocycle is cyclopropyl. Another particular saturated carbocycle is cyclohexyl. Particular unsaturated carbocycles are aromatic e.g. aryl groups as previously defined, for example phenyl. The terms “substituted carbocyclyl”, “carbocycle” and “carbocyclo” mean these groups substituted by the same substituents as the “substituted alkyl” group.

“Carboxy-protecting group” as used herein refers to one of the ester derivatives of the carboxylic acid group commonly employed to block or protect the carboxylic acid group while reactions are carried out on other functional groups on the compound. Examples of such carboxylic acid protecting groups include 4-nitrobenzyl, 4-methoxybenzyl, 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl, 2,4-dimethoxybenzyl, 2,4,6-trimethoxybenzyl, 2,4,6-trimethylbenzyl, pentamethylbenzyl, 3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl, benzhydryl, 4,4′-dimethoxybenzhydryl, 2,2′,4,4′-tetramethoxybenzhydryl, alkyl such as t-butyl or t-amyl, trityl, 4-methoxytrityl, 4,4′-dimethoxytrityl, 4,4′,4″-trimethoxytrityl, 2-phenylprop-2-yl, trimethylsilyl, t-butyldimethylsilyl, phenacyl, 2,2,2-trichloroethyl, beta-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl, beta-(di(n-butyl)methylsilyl)ethyl, p-toluenesulfonylethyl, 4-nitrobenzylsulfonylethyl, allyl, cinnamyl, 1-(trimethylsilylmethyl)prop-1-cn-3-yl, and like moieties. The species of carboxy-protecting group employed is not critical so long as the derivatized carboxylic acid is stable to the condition of subsequent reaction(s) on other positions of the molecule and can be removed at the appropriate point without disrupting the remainder of the molecule. In particular, it is important not to subject a carboxy-protected molecule to strong nucleophilic bases, such as lithium hydroxide or NaOH, or reductive conditions employing highly activated metal hydrides such as LiAlH4. (Such harsh removal conditions are also to be avoided when removing amino-protecting groups and hydroxy-protecting groups, discussed below.) Particular carboxylic acid protecting groups are the alkyl (e.g. methyl, ethyl, t-butyl), allyl, benzyl and p-nitrobenzyl groups. Similar carboxy-protecting groups used in the cephalosporin, penicillin and peptide arts can also be used to protect a carboxy group substituents. Further examples of these groups are found in T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, “Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis”, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1991, chapter 5; E. Haslam, “Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry”, J. G. W. McOmie, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, N.Y., 1973, Chapter 5, and T. W. Greene, “Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis”, John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y., 1981, Chapter 5. The term “protected carboxy” refers to a carboxy group substituted with one of the above carboxy-protecting groups.

“Guanidine” means the group —NH—C(NH)—NHR in which R is H, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle, carbocycle-substituted alkyl or heterocycle-substituted alkyl wherein the alkyl, alkoxy, carbocycle and heterocycle are as defined herein. A particular guanidine is the group —NH—C(NH)—NH2.

“Hydroxy-protecting group” as used herein refers to a derivative of the hydroxy group commonly employed to block or protect the hydroxy group while reactions are carried out on other functional groups on the compound. Examples of such protecting groups include tetrahydropyranyloxy, benzoyl, acetoxy, carbamoyloxy, benzyl, and silylethers (e.g. TBS, TBDPS) groups. Further examples of these groups are found in T. W. Greene and P. G. M. Wuts, “Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis”, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1991, chapters 2-3; E. Haslam, “Protective Groups in Organic Chemistry”, J. G. W. McOmie, Ed., Plenum Press, New York, N.Y., 1973, Chapter 5, and T. W. Greene, “Protective Groups in Organic Synthesis”, John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y., 1981. The term “protected hydroxy” refers to a hydroxy group substituted with one of the above hydroxy-protecting groups.

“Heterocyclic group”, “heterocyclic”, “heterocycle”, “heterocyclyl”, or “heterocyclo” alone and when used as a moiety in a complex group such as a heterocycloalkyl group, are used interchangeably and refer to any mono-, bi-, or tricyclic, saturated or unsaturated, aromatic (heteroaryl) or non-aromatic ring having the number of atoms designated, generally from 5 to about 14 ring atoms, where the ring atoms are carbon and at least one heteroatom (nitrogen, sulfur or oxygen), for example 1 to 4 heteroatoms. Typically, a 5-membered ring has 0 to 2 double bonds and 6- or 7-membered ring has 0 to 3 double bonds and the nitrogen or sulfur heteroatoms may optionally be oxidized (e.g. SO, SO2), and any nitrogen heteroatom may optionally be quaternized. Particular non-aromatic heterocycles are morpholinyl (morpholino), pyrrolidinyl, oxiranyl, oxetanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, 2,3-dihydrofuranyl, 2H-pyranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, thiiranyl, thietanyl, tetrahydrothietanyl, aziridinyl, azetidinyl, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolyl, piperazinyl and piperidinyl. A “heterocycloalkyl” group is a heterocycle group as defined above covalently bonded to an alkyl group as defined above. Particular 5-membered heterocycles containing a sulfur or oxygen atom and one to three nitrogen atoms are thiazolyl, in particular thiazol-2-yl and thiazol-2-yl N-oxide, thiadiazolyl, in particular 1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl and 1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, oxazolyl, for example oxazol-2-yl, and oxadiazolyl, such as 1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl, and 1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl. Particular 5-membered ring heterocycles containing 2 to 4 nitrogen atoms include imidazolyl, such as imidazol-2-yl; triazolyl, such as 1,3,4-triazol-5-yl; 1,2,3-triazol-5-yl, 1,2,4-triazol-5-yl, and tetrazolyl, such as 1H-tetrazol-5-yl. Particular benzo-fused 5-membered heterocycles are benzoxazol-2-yl, benzthiazol-2-yl and benzimidazol-2-yl. Particular 6-membered heterocycles contain one to three nitrogen atoms and optionally a sulfur or oxygen atom, for example pyridyl, such as pyrid-2-yl, pyrid-3-yl, and pyrid-4-yl; pyrimidyl, such as pyrimid-2-yl and pyrimid-4-yl; triazinyl, such as 1,3,4-triazin-2-yl and 1,3,5-triazin-4-yl; pyridazinyl, in particular pyridazin-3-yl, and pyrazinyl. The pyridine N-oxides and pyridazine N-oxides and the pyridyl, pyrimid-2-yl, pyrimid-4-yl, pyridazinyl and the 1,3,4-triazin-2-yl groups, are a particular group. Substituents for “optionally substituted heterocycles”, and further examples of the 5- and 6-membered ring systems discussed above can be found in W. Druckheimer et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,278,793. In a particular embodiment, such optionally substituted heterocycle groups are substituted with hydroxyl, alkyl, alkoxy, acyl, halogen, mercapto, oxo, carboxyl, acyl, halo-substituted alkyl, amino, cyano, nitro, amidino and guanidino.

“Heteroaryl” alone and when used as a moiety in a complex group such as a heteroaralkyl group, refers to any mono-, bi-, or tricyclic aromatic ring system having the number of atoms designated where at least one ring is a 5-, 6- or 7-membered ring containing from one to four heteroatoms selected from the group nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, and in a particular embodiment at least one heteroatom is nitrogen (Lang\'s Handbook of Chemistry, supra). Included in the definition are any bicyclic groups where any of the above heteroaryl rings are fused to a benzene ring. Particular heteroaryls incorporate a nitrogen or oxygen heteroatom. The following ring systems are examples of the heteroaryl (whether substituted or unsubstituted) groups denoted by the term “heteroaryl”: thienyl, furyl, imidazolyl, pyrazolyl, thiazolyl, isothiazolyl, oxazolyl, isoxazolyl, triazolyl, thiadiazolyl, oxadiazolyl, tetrazolyl, thiatriazolyl, oxatriazolyl, pyridyl, pyrimidyl, pyrazinyl, pyridazinyl, thiazinyl, oxazinyl, triazinyl, thiadiazinyl, oxadiazinyl, dithiazinyl, dioxazinyl, oxathiazinyl, tetrazinyl, thiatriazinyl, oxatriazinyl, dithiadiazinyl, imidazolinyl, dihydropyrimidyl, tetrahydropyrimidyl, tetrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazinyl and purinyl, as well as benzo-fused derivatives, for example benzoxazolyl, benzofuryl, benzothiazolyl, benzothiadiazolyl, benzotriazolyl, benzoimidazolyl and indolyl. A particular “heteroaryl” is: 1,3-thiazol-2-yl, 4-(carboxymethyl)-5-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl, 4-(carboxymethyl)-5-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl sodium salt, 1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, 3-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, 1,3,4-triazol-5-yl, 2-methyl-1,3,4-triazol-5-yl, 2-hydroxy-1,3,4-triazol-5-yl, 2-carboxy-4-methyl-1,3,4-triazol-5-yl sodium salt, 2-carboxy-4-methyl-1,3,4-triazol-5-yl, 1,3-oxazol-2-yl, 1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl, 2-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl, 2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl, 1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl, 1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, 2-thiol-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, 2-(methylthio)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-5-yl, 1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(1-(dimethylamino)eth-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(carboxymethyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(carboxymethyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl sodium salt, 1-(methylsulfonic acid)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(methylsulfonic acid)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl sodium salt, 2-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1,2,3-triazol-5-yl, 1-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl, 2-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl, 4-methyl-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl, pyrid-2-yl N-oxide, 6-methoxy-2-(n-oxide)-pyridaz-3-yl, 6-hydroxypyridaz-3-yl, 1-methylpyrid-2-yl, 1-methylpyrid-4-yl, 2-hydroxypyrimid-4-yl, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-5,6-dioxo-4-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4-(formylmethyl)-5,6-dioxo-as-triazin-3-yl, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-6-hydroxy-as-triazin-3-yl, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-6-hydroxy-as-triazin-3-yl sodium salt, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl sodium salt, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-6-methoxy-2-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-as-triazin-3-yl, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-2-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-2,6-dimethyl-as-triazin-3-yl, tetrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazin-6-yl and 8-aminotetrazolo[1,5-b]-pyridazin-6-yl. An alternative group of “heteroaryl” includes; 4-(carboxymethyl)-5-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl, 4-(carboxymethyl)-5-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl sodium salt, 1,3,4-triazol-5-yl, 2-methyl-1,3,4-triazol-5-yl, 1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-methyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(1-(dimethylamino)eth-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(carboxymethyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(carboxymethyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl sodium salt, 1-(methylsulfonic acid)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl, 1-(methylsulfonic acid)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl sodium salt, 1,2,3-triazol-5-yl, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-5,6-dioxo-4-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl, 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-4-(2-formylmethyl)-5,6-dioxo-as-triazin-3-yl, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl sodium salt, 2,5-dihydro-5-oxo-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-as-triazin-3-yl, tetrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazin-6-yl, and 8-aminotetrazolo[1,5-b]pyridazin-6-yl. Heteroaryl groups are optionally substituted as described for heterocycles.

“Inhibitor” means a compound which reduces or prevents the binding of IAP proteins to caspase proteins or which reduces or prevents the inhibition of apoptosis by an IAP protein. Alternatively, “inhibitor” means a compound which prevents the binding interaction of X-IAP with caspases or the binding interaction of ML-IAP with SMAC.

“Optionally substituted” unless otherwise specified means that a group may be unsubstituted or substituted by one or more (e.g. 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4) of the substituents listed for that group in which said substituents may be the same or different. In an embodiment an optionally substituted group has 1 substituent. In another embodiment an optionally substituted group has 2 substituents. In another embodiment an optionally substituted group has 3 substituents.

“Pharmaceutically acceptable salts” include both acid and base addition salts. “Pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salt” refers to those salts which retain the biological effectiveness and properties of the free bases and which are not biologically or otherwise undesirable, formed with inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, hydrobromic acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, carbonic acid, phosphoric acid and the like, and organic acids may be selected from aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic, araliphatic, heterocyclic, carboxylic, and sulfonic classes of organic acids such as formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, glycolic acid, gluconic acid, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, malic acid, maleic acid, maloneic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, aspartic acid, ascorbic acid, glutamic acid, anthranilic acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, mandelic acid, embonic acid, phenylacetic acid, methanesulfonic acid, ethanesulfonic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid, salicyclic acid and the like.



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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20120270886 A1
Publish Date
10/25/2012
Document #
13542548
File Date
07/05/2012
USPTO Class
5142601
Other USPTO Classes
514301, 514367
International Class
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