This application claims priority to provisional U.S. patent application No. 60/751,801 filed Dec. 19, 2005, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
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The present invention relates to organic compounds useful for therapy and/or prophylax is in a mammal, and in particular to inhibitors of IAP proteins useful for treating cancers.
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OF THE INVENTION
Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a genetically and biochemically regulated mechanism that plays an important role in development and homeostasis in invertebrates as well as vertebrates. Aberrancies in apoptosis that lead to premature cell death have been linked to a variety of developmental disorders. Deficiencies in apoptosis that result in the lack of cell death have been linked to cancer and chronic viral infections (Thompson et al., (1995) Science 267, 1456-1462).
One of the key effector molecules in apoptosis are the caspases (cysteine containing aspartate specific proteases). Caspases are strong proteases, cleaving after aspartic acid residues and once activated, digest vital cell proteins from within the cell. Since caspases are such strong proteases, tight control of this family of proteins is necessary to prevent premature cell death. In general, caspases are synthesized as largely inactive zymogens that require proteolytic processing in order to be active. This proteolytic processing is only one of the ways in which caspases are regulated. The second mechanism is through a family of proteins that bind and inhibit caspases.
A family of molecules that inhibit caspases are the Inhibitors of Apoptosis (IAP) (Deveraux et al., J Clin Immunol (1999), 19:388-398). IAPs were originally discovered in baculovirus by their functional ability to substitute for P35 protein, an anti-apoptotic gene (Crook et al. (1993) J Virology 67, 2168-2174). IAPs have been described in organisms ranging from Drosophila to human. Regardless of their origin, structurally, IAPs comprise one to three Baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, and most of them also possess a carboxyl-terminal RING finger motif. The BIR domain itself is a zinc binding domain of about 70 residues comprising 4 alpha-helices and 3 beta strands, with cysteine and histidine residues that coordinate the zinc ion (Hinds et al., (1999) Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 648-651). It is the BIR domain that is believed to cause the anti-apoptotic effect by inhibiting the caspases and thus inhibiting apoptosis. As an example, human X-chromosome linked IAP (XIAP) inhibits caspase 3, caspase 7 and the Apaf-1-cytochrome C mediated activation of caspase 9 (Deveraux et al., (1998) EMBO J. 17, 2215-2223). Caspases 3 and 7 are inhibited by the BIR2 domain of XIAP, while the BIR3 domain of XIAP is responsible for the inhibition of caspase 9 activity. XIAP is expressed ubiquitously in most adult and fetal tissues (Liston et al, Nature, 1996, 379(6563):349), and is overexpressed in a number of tumor cell lines of the NCI 60 cell line panel (Fong et al, Genomics, 2000, 70:113; Tamm et al, Clin. Cancer Res. 2000, 6(5):1796). Overexpression of XIAP in tumor cells has been demonstrated to confer protection against a variety of pro-apoptotic stimuli and promotes resistance to chemotherapy (LaCasse et al, Oncogene, 1998, 17(25):3247). Consistent with this, a strong correlation between XIAP protein levels and survival has been demonstrated for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (Tamm et al, supra). Down-regulation of XIAP expression by antisense oligonucleotides has been shown to sensitize tumor cells to death induced by a wide range of pro-apoptotic agents, both in vitro and in vivo (Sasaki et al, Cancer Res., 2000, 60(20):5659; Lin et al, Biochem J., 2001, 353:299; Hu et al, Clin. Cancer Res., 2003, 9(7):2826). Smac/DIABLO-derived peptides have also been demonstrated to sensitize a number of different tumor cell lines to apoptosis induced by a variety of pro-apoptotic drugs (Arnt et al, J. Biol. Chem., 2002, 277(46):44236; Fulda et al, Nature Med., 2002, 8(8):808; Guo et al, Blood, 2002, 99(9):3419; Vucic et al, J. Biol. Chem., 2002, 277(14):12275; Yang et al, Cancer Res., 2003, 63(4):831).
Melanoma IAP (ML-IAP) is an IAP not detectable in most normal adult tissues but is strongly upregulated in melanoma (Vucic et al., (2000) Current Bio 10:1359-1366). Determination of protein structure demonstrated significant homology of the ML-IAP BIR and RING finger domains to corresponding domains present in human XIAP, C-IAP1 and C-IAP2. The BIR domain of ML-IAP appears to have the most similarities to the BIR2 and BIR3 of XIAP, C-IAP1 and C-IAP2, and appears to be responsible for the inhibition of apoptosis, as determined by deletional analysis. Furthermore, Vucic et al., demonstrated that ML-IAP could inhibit chemotherapeutic agent induced apoptosis. Agents such as adriamycin and 4-tertiary butylphenol (4-TBP) were tested in a cell culture system of melanomas overexpressing ML-IAP and the chemotherapeutic agents were significantly less effective in killing the cells when compared to a normal melanocyte control. The mechanism by which ML-IAP produces an anti-apoptotic activity is in part through inhibition of caspase 3 and 9. ML-IAP did not effectively inhibit caspases 1, 2, 6, or 8.
Since apoptosis is a strictly controlled pathway with multiple interacting factors, the discovery that IAPs themselves are regulated was not unusual. In the fruit fly Drosophila, the Reaper (rpr), Head Involution Defective (hid) and GRIM proteins physically interact with and inhibit the anti-apoptotic activity of the Drosophila family of IAPs. In the mammal, the proteins SMAC/DIABLO act to block the IAPs and allow apoptosis to proceed. It was shown that during normal apoptosis, SMAC is processed into an active form and is released from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm where it physically binds to IAPs and prevents the IAP from binding to a caspase. This inhibition of the IAP allows the caspase to remain active and thus proceed with apoptosis. Interestingly, sequence homology between the IAP inhibitors shows that there is a four amino acid motif in the N-terminus of the processed, active proteins. This tetrapeptide appears to bind into a hydrophobic pocket in the BIR domain and disrupts the BIR domain binding to caspases (Chai et al., (2000) Nature 406:855-862, Liu et al., (2000) Nature 408:1004-1008, Wu et al., (2000) Nature 408 1008-1012).
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OF THE INVENTION
In one aspect of the present invention there is provided novel inhibitors of IAP proteins having the general formula (I)
X1 and X2 are each independently O or S;
Y is a bond, (CR7R7)n, O or S;
Z1 is NR8, O, S, SO or SO2;
Z2, Z3 and Z4 are independently CQ or N;
Q is H, halogen, hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, nitro, cyano, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle; wherein one or more CH2 or CH groups of an alkyl is optionally replaced with —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8)—, —C(O)—, —C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(O)—, —SO2—NR8—, —NR8—SO2—, —NR8—C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—, —C(O)—O— or —O—C(O)—; and an alkyl, carbocycle and heterocycle is optionally substituted with one or more hydroxyl, alkoxy, acyl, halogen, mercapto, oxo, carboxyl, acyl, halo-substituted alkyl, amino, cyano nitro, amidino, guanidino an optionally substituted carbocycle or an optionally substituted heterocycle;
R1 is H, OH or alkyl; or R1 and R2 together form a 5-8 member heterocycle;
R2 is alkyl, a carbocycle, carbocyclylalkyl, a heterocycle or heterocyclylalkyl each optionally substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, oxo, thione, mercapto, carboxyl, alkyl, haloalkyl, acyl, alkoxy, alkylthio, sulfonyl, amino and nitro, wherein said alkyl, acyl, alkoxy, alkylthio and sulfonyl are optionally substituted with hydroxy, mercapto, halogen, amino, alkoxy, hydroxyalkoxy and alkoxyalkoxy;
R3 is H or alkyl optionally substituted with halogen or hydroxyl; or R3 and R4 together form a 3-6 heterocycle;
R3′ is H, or R3 and R3′ together foil a 3-6 carbocycle;
R4 and R4′ are independently H, hydroxyl, amino, alkyl, carbocycle, carbocycloalkyl, carbocycloalkyloxy, carbocycloalkyloxycarbonyl, heterocycle, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyloxy or heterocycloalkyloxycarbonyl; wherein each alkyl, carbocycloalkyl, carbocycloalkyloxy, carbocycloalkyloxycarbonyl, heterocycle, heterocycloalkyl, heterocycloalkyloxy and heterocycloalkyloxycarbonyl is optionally substituted with halogen, hydroxyl, mercapto, carboxyl, alkyl, alkoxy, amino, imino and nitro; or R4 and R4′ together form a heterocycle;
R5 is H or alkyl;
R6, and R6′ are each independently H, alkyl, aryl or aralkyl;
R7 is H, cyano, hydroxyl, mercapto, halogen, nitro, carboxyl, amidino, guanidino, alkyl, a carbocycle, a heterocycle or —U—V; wherein U is —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8)—, —C(O)—, —C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(O)—, —SO2—NR8—, —NR8—SO2—, —NR8—C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—NR8—, —NR8—C(NH)—, —C(O)—O— or —O—C(O)— and V is alkyl, a carbocycle or a heterocycle; and wherein one or more CH2 or CH groups of an alkyl is optionally replaced with —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8)—, —C(O)—, —C(O)—NR8—, —NR8—C(O)—, —SO2—NR8—, —NR8—SO2—, —NR8—C(O)—NR8—, —C(O)—O— or —O—C(O)—; and an alkyl, carbocycle and heterocycle is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, alkoxy, acyl, halogen, mercapto, oxo, carboxyl, acyl, halo-substituted alkyl, amino, cyano nitro, amidino, guanidino an optionally substituted carbocycle or an optionally substituted heterocycle;
R8 is H, alkyl, a carbocycle or a heterocycle wherein one or more CH2 or CH groups of said alkyl is optionally replaced with —O—, —S—, —S(O)—, S(O)2, —N(R8), or —C(O)—; and said alkyl, carbocycle and heterocycle is optionally substituted with hydroxyl, alkoxy, acyl, halogen, mercapto, oxo (═O), carboxyl, acyl, halo-substituted alkyl, amino, cyano nitro, amidino, guanidino an optionally substituted carbocycle or an optionally substituted heterocycle; and
n is 0 to 4.
In another aspect of the invention, there are provided compositions comprising compounds of formula I and a carrier, diluent or excipient.
In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of inducing apoptosis in a cell comprising introducing into said cell a compound of formula I.
In another aspect of the invention, there is provided a method of sensitizing a cell to an apoptotic signal comprising introducing into said cell a compound of formula I.