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Mutant g-protein coupled receptors and methods for selecting them

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Mutant g-protein coupled receptors and methods for selecting them


The invention relates to mutant G-protein coupled receptors with increased conformational stability, and methods of use thereof. In some aspects, polynucleotides encoding the mutant G-protein coupled receptors are provided. In some aspects, host cells comprising the polynucleotides are provided. In some aspects, the invention relates to crystallized forms of the mutant G-protein coupled receptors, and methods of preparing the same.
Related Terms: G-protein

Browse recent Heptares Therapeutics Limited patents - Welwyn Garden City, GB
Inventors: Richard Henderson, Christopher Gordon Tate, Francesca Magnani, Maria Josefa Serrano-Vega, Yoko Shibata, Antony Johannes Wame, Malcolm Peter Weir
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120270230 - Class: 435 72 (USPTO) - 10/25/12 - Class 435 
Chemistry: Molecular Biology And Microbiology > Measuring Or Testing Process Involving Enzymes Or Micro-organisms; Composition Or Test Strip Therefore; Processes Of Forming Such Composition Or Test Strip >Involving Antigen-antibody Binding, Specific Binding Protein Assay Or Specific Ligand-receptor Binding Assay >Involving A Micro-organism Or Cell Membrane Bound Antigen Or Cell Membrane Bound Receptor Or Cell Membrane Bound Antibody Or Microbial Lysate

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120270230, Mutant g-protein coupled receptors and methods for selecting them.

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The present invention relates to mutant G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and methods for selecting those with increased stability. In particular, it relates to the selection and preparation of mutant GPCRs which have increased stability under a particular condition compared to their respective parent proteins. Such proteins are more likely to be crystallisable, and hence amenable to structure determination, than the parent proteins. They are also useful for drug discovery and development studies.

Over the past 20 years the rate of determination of membrane protein structures has gradually increased, but most success has been in crystallising membrane proteins from bacteria rather than from eukaryotes [1]. Bacterial membrane proteins have been easier to overexpress using standard techniques in Escherichia coli than eukaryotic membrane proteins [2,3] and the bacterial proteins are sometimes far more stable in detergent, detergent-stability being an essential prerequisite to purification and crystallisation. Genome sequencing projects have also allowed the cloning and expression of many homologues of a specific transporter or ion channel, which also greatly improves the chances of success during crystallisation. However, out of the 120 different membrane protein structures that have been solved to date, there are only seven structures of mammalian integral membrane proteins (http:/blanco.biomol.uci.edu/); five of these membrane proteins were purified from natural sources and are stable in detergent solutions. Apart from the difficulties in overexpressing eukaryotic membrane proteins, they often have poor stability in detergent solutions, which severely restricts the range of crystallisation conditions that can be explored without their immediate denaturation or precipitation. Ideally, membrane proteins should be stable for many days in any given detergent solution, but the detergents that are best suited to growing diffraction-quality crystals tend to be the most destabilising detergents ie those with short aliphatic chains and small or charged head groups. It is also the structures of human membrane proteins that we would like to solve, because these are required to help the development of therapeutic agents by the pharmaceutical industry; often there are substantial differences in the pharmacology of receptors, channels and transporters from different mammals, whilst yeast and bacterial genomes may not include any homologous proteins. There is thus an overwhelming need to develop a generic strategy that will allow the production of detergent-stable eukaryotic integral membrane proteins for crystallisation and structure determination and potentially for other purposes such as drug screening, bioassay and biosensor applications.

Membrane proteins have evolved to be sufficiently stable in the membrane to ensure cell viability, but they have not evolved to be stable in detergent solution, suggesting that membrane proteins could be artificially evolved and detergent-stable mutants isolated [4]. This was subsequently demonstrated for two bacterial proteins, diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) [5,6] and bacteriorhodopsin [7]. Random mutagenesis of DGK identified specific point mutations that increased thermostability and, when combined, the effect was additive so that the optimally stable mutant had a half-life of 35 minutes at 80° C. compared with a half-life of 6 minutes at 55° C. for the native protein. [6]. It was shown that the timer of the detergent-resistant DGK mutant had become stable in SDS and it is thus likely that stabilisation of the oligomeric state played a significant role in thermostabilisation. Although the aim of the mutagenesis was to produce a membrane protein suitable for crystallisation, the structure of DGK has yet to be determined and there have been no reports of successful crystallization. A further study on bacteriorhodopsin by cysteine-scanning mutagenesis along helix B demonstrated that it was not possible to predict which amino acid residues would lead to thermostability upon mutation nor, when studied in the context of the structure, was it clear why thermostabilisation had occurred [7].

GPCRs constitute a very large family of proteins that control many physiological processes and are the targets of many effective drugs. Thus, they are of considerable pharmacological importance. A list of GPCRs is given in Foord et al (2005) Pharmacol Rev. 57, 279-288, which is incorporated herein by reference. GPCRs are generally unstable when isolated, and despite considerable efforts, it has not been possible to crystallise any except bovine rhodopsin, which naturally is exceptionally stable.

GPCRs are druggable targets, and reference is made particularly to Overington et al (2006) Nature Rev. Drug Discovery 5, 993-996 which indicates that over a quarter of present drugs have a GPCR as a target.

GPCRs are thought to exist in multiple distinct conformations which are associated with different pharmacological classes of ligand such as agonists and antagonists, and to cycle between these conformations in order to function (Kenakin T. (1997) Ann N Y Acad Sci 812, 116-125).

It will be appreciated that the methods of the invention do not include a method as described in D\'Antona et al., including binding of [3H]CP55940 to a constitutively inactive mutant human cannabinoid receptor 1 (T210A) in which the Thr residue at position 210 is replaced with an Ala residue.

The listing or discussion of an apparently prior-published document in this specification should not necessarily be taken as an acknowledgement that the document is part of the state of the art or is common general knowledge.

We have realised that there are two serious problems associated with trying to crystallise GPCRs, namely their lack of stability in detergent and the fact that they exist in multiple conformations. In order to function GPCRs have evolved to cycle through at least two distinct conformations, the agonist bound form and the antagonist-bound form, and changes between these two conformations can occur spontaneously in the absence of ligand. It is thus likely that any purified receptors populate a mixture of conformations. Just adding ligands to GPCRs during crystallisation trials has not resulted in their structure determination. To improve the likelihood of crystallisation, we therefore selected mutations that improved the stability of the GPCR and, in addition, preferentially locked the receptor in a specific biologically relevant conformation.

We decided to see whether stabilisation of a GPCR in a particular, biologically relevant conformation was possible and whether the effect was sufficiently great that it would significantly improve the chances of obtaining diffraction-quality crystals. In Example 1, the β1-adrenergic receptor (βAR) from turkey erythrocytes [8] was chosen as a test subject for this study for a number of reasons. The βAR is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that has well-developed pharmacology with many ligands commercially available and in a radiolabelled form. In addition, overexpression of βAR has been particularly successful using the baculovirus expression system and it can be purified in milligram quantities in a functional form. [9]. In Example 2, a human adenosine receptor was used, and in Example 3, a rat neurotensin receptor was used.

Method for Selecting Mutant GPCRs with Increased Stability

A first aspect of the invention provides a method for selecting a mutant G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with increased stability, the method comprising (a) providing one or more mutants of a parent GPCR, (b) selecting a ligand, the ligand being one which binds to the parent GPCR when the GPCR is residing in a particular conformation, (c) determining whether the or each mutant GPCR has increased stability with respect to binding the selected ligand compared to the stability of the parent GPCR with respect to binding that ligand, and (d) selecting those mutants that have an increased stability compared to the parent GPCR with respect to binding of the selected ligand.

The inventors have appreciated that, in order to improve the likelihood of crystallisation of a GPCR in a biologically relevant form (which is therefore pharmacologically useful), it is desirable not only to increase the stability of the protein, but also for the protein to have this increased stability when in a particular conformation. The conformation is determined by a selected ligand, and is a biologically relevant conformation in particular a pharmacologically relevant conformation. Thus, the method of the invention may be considered to be a method for selecting mutants of a GPCR which have increased stability of a Particular conformation, for example they may have increased conformational thermostability. The method may be used to create stable, conformationally locked GPCRs by mutagenesis. The selected mutant GPCRs are effectively purer forms of the parent molecules in that a much higher proportion of them occupies a particular conformational state. The deliberate selection of a chosen receptor conformation resolved from other conformations by use of a ligand (or ligands) that bind preferentially to this conformation is therefore an important feature of the invention. The method may also be considered to be a method for selecting mutant GPCRs which are more tractable to crystallisation.

Thus the invention includes a method for selecting a mutant G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) with increased stability, the method comprising (a) providing one or more mutants of a parent GPCR, (b) selecting a ligand, the ligand being one which binds to the parent GPCR when the GPCR is residing in a particular conformation, (c) determining whether the or each mutant GPCR when residing in the particular conformation has increased stability with respect to binding the selected ligand compared to the stability of the parent GPCR when residing in the same particular conformation with respect to binding that ligand, and (d) selecting those mutants that have an increased stability compared to the parent GPCR with respect to binding of the selected Iigand.

In a review of the druggable genome by Hopkins & Groom (2002) Nature Rev. Drug Discovery 1, 727-730, Table 1 contains a list of protein families many of which are GPCRs. Overington et al (2006) Nature Rev. Drug Discovery 5, 993-996 provides more details of drug targets, and FIG. 1 indicates that more than a quarter of current drugs target GPCRs. There are 52 GPCR targets for orally available drugs out of a total of 186 total targets in this category.

Suitable GPCRs for use in the practice of the invention include, but are not limited to β-adrenergic receptor, adenosine receptor, in particular adenosine A2a receptor, and neurotensin receptor (NTR). Other suitable GP CRs are well known in the art and include those listed in Hopkins & Groom supra. In addition, the International Union of Pharmacology produce a list of GPCRs (Foord et al (2005) Pharmacol. Rev. 57, 279-288, incorporated herein by reference and this list is periodically updated at http://www.iuphar-db.org/GPCR/ReceptorFamiliesForward). It will be noted that GPCRs are divided into different classes, principally based on their amino acid sequence similarities. They are also divided into families by reference to the natural ligands to which they bind. All GPCRs are included in the scope of the invention.

The amino acid sequences (and the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs which encode them) of many GPCRs are readily available, for example by reference to GenBank. In particular, Foord et al supra gives the human gene symbols and human, mouse and rat gene IDs from Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez). It should be noted, also, that because the sequence of the human genome is substantially complete, the amino acid sequences of human GPCRs can be deduced therefrom.

Although the GPCR may be derived from any source, it is particularly preferred if it is from a eukaryotic source. It is particularly preferred if it is derived from a vertebrate source such as a mammal or a bird. It is particularly preferred if the GPCR is derived from rat, mouse, rabbit or dog or non-human primate or mar, or from chicken or turkey. For the avoidance of doubt, we include within the meaning of “derived from” that a cDNA or gene was originally obtained using genetic material from the source, but that the protein may be expressed in any host cell subsequently. Thus, it will be plain that a eukaryotic GPCR (such as an avian or mammalian GPCR) may be expressed in a prokaryotic host cell, such as E. coli, but be considered to be avian- or mammalian-derived, as the case may be.

In some instances, the GPCR may be composed of more than one different subunit. For example, the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor requires the binding of a single transmembrane helix protein (RAMP1) to acquire its physiological ligand binding characteristics. Effector, accessory, auxiliary or GPCR-interacting proteins which combine with the GPCR to form or modulate a functional complex are well known in the art and include, for example, receptor kinases, G-proteins and arrestins (Bockaert et al (2004) Curr Opinion Drug Discov and Dev 7, 649-657).

The mutants of the parent GPCR may be produced in any suitable way and to provided in any suitable form. Thus, for example, a series of specific mutants of the parent protein may be made in which each amino acid residue in all or a part of the parent protein is independently changed to another amino acid residue. For example, it may be convenient to make mutations in those parts of the protein which are predicted to be membrane spanning. The three-dimensional structure of rhodopsin is known (Li et al (2004) J Mol Biol 343, 1409-1438; Palczewski et al (2000) Science 289, 739-745), and it is possible to model certain GPCRs using this structure. Thus, conveniently, parts of the GPCR to mutate may be based on modelling. Similarly, computer programs are available which model transmembrane regions of GPCRs based on hydrophobicity (Kyle & Dolittle (1982) J. Mol. Biol. 157, 105-132), and use can be made of such models when selecting parts of the protein to mutate. Conventional site-directed mutagenesis may be employed, or polymerase chain reaction-based procedures well known in the art may be used. It is possible, but less desirable, to use ribosome display methods in the selection of the mutant protein.

Typically, each selected amino acid is replaced by Ala (ie Ala-scanning mutagenesis), although it may be replaced by any other amino acid. If the selected amino acid is Ala, it may conveniently be replaced by Leu. Alternatively, the amino acid may be replaced by Gly (ie Gly-scanning mutagenesis), which may allow a closer packing of neighbouring helices that may lock the protein in a particular conformation. If the selected amino acid is Gly, it may conveniently be replaced by Ala.

Although the amino acid used to replace the given amino acid at a particular position is typically a naturally occurring amino acid, typically an “encodeable” amino acid, it may be a non-natural amino acid (in which case the protein is typically made by chemical synthesis or by use of non-natural amino-acyl tRNAs). An “encodeable” amino acid is one which is incorporated into a polypeptide by translation of mRNA. It is also possible to create non-natural amino acids or introduce non-peptide linkages at a given position by covalent chemical modification, for example by post-translational treatment of the protein or semisynthesis. These post-translational modifications may be natural, such as phosphorylation, glycosylation or palmitoylation, or synthetic or biosynthetic.

Alternatively, the mutants may be produced by a random mutagenesis procedure, which may be of the whole protein or of a selected portion thereof. Random mutagenesis procedures are well known in the art.

Conveniently, the mutant GPCR has one replaced amino acid compared to the parent protein (ie it is mutated at one amino acid position). In this way, the contribution to stability of a single amino acid replacement may be assessed. However, the mutant GPCR assayed for stability may have more than one replaced amino acid compared to the parent protein, such as 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 or 6 replacements.

As is discussed in more detail below, combinations of mutations may be made based on the results of the selection method. It has been found that in some specific cases combining mutations in a single mutant protein leads to a further increase in stability. Thus, it will be appreciated that the method of the invention can be used in an iterative way by, for example, carrying it out to identify single mutations which increase stability, combining those mutations in a single mutant GPCRs which is the GPCR then provided in part (a) of the method. Thus, multiply-mutated mutant proteins can be selected using the method.

The parent GPCR need not be the naturally occurring protein. Conveniently, it may be an engineered version which is capable of expression in a suitable host organism, such as Escherichia coli. For example, as described in Example 1, a convenient engineered version of the turkey β-adrenergic receptor is one which is truncated and lacks residues 1-33 of the amino acid sequence (ie βAR34-424). The parent GPCR may be a truncated form of the naturally occurring protein (truncated at either or both ends), or it may be a fusion, either to the naturally occurring protein or to a fragment thereof. Alternatively or additionally, the parent GPCR, compared to a naturally-occurring GPCR, may be modified in order to improve, for example, solubility, proteolytic stability (eg by truncation, deletion of loops, mutation of glycosylation sites or mutation of reactive amino acid side chains such as cysteine). In any event, the parent GPCR is a protein that is able to bind to the selected ligand which ligand is one which is known to bind the naturally occurring GPCR. Conveniently, the parent GPCR is one which, on addition of an appropriate ligand, can affect any one or more of the downstream activities which are commonly known to be affected by G-protein activation.

However, it will be appreciated that the stability of the mutant is to be compared to a parent in order to be able to assess an increase in stability.

A ligand is selected, the ligand being one which binds to the parent GPCR when residing in a particular conformation. Typically, the ligand will bind to one conformation of the parent GPCR (and may cause the GPCR to adopt this conformation), but does not bind as strongly to another conformation that the GPCR may be able to adopt. Thus, the presence of the ligand may be considered to encourage the GPCR to adopt the particular conformation. Thus, the method may be considered to be a way of selecting mutant GPCRs which are trapped in a conformation of biological relevance (eg ligand bound state), and which are more stable with respect to that conformation.

Preferably the particular conformation in which the GPCR resides in step (c) corresponds to the class of ligand selected in step (b).

Preferably the selected ligand is from the agonist class of ligands and the particular conformation is an agonist conformation, or the selected ligand is from the antagonist class of ligands and the particular conformation is an antagonist conformation.

Preferably the selected ligand is from the agonist class of ligands and the particular conformation in which the GPCR resides in step (c) is the agonist conformation.

Preferably, the selected ligand binding affinity for the mutant receptor should be equal to or greater than that for the wild type receptor; mutants that exhibit significantly reduced binding to the selected ligand are typically rejected.

By “ligand” we include any molecule which binds to the GPCR and which causes the GPCR to reside in a particular conformation. The ligand preferably is one which causes more than half of the GPCR molecules overall to be in a particular conformation.

Many suitable ligands are known.

Typically, the ligand is a full agonist and is able to bind to the GPCR and is capable of eliciting a full (100%) biological response, measured for example by G-protein coupling, downstream signalling events or a physiological output such as vasodilation. Thus, typically, the biological response is GDP/GTP exchange in a G-protein, followed by stimulation of the linked effector pathway. The measurement, typically, is GDP/GTP exchange or a change in the level of the end product of the pathway (eg cGMP or inositol phosphates). The ligand may also be a partial agonist and is able to bind to the GPCR and is capable of eliciting a partial (<100%) biological response.

The ligand may also be an inverse agonist, which is a molecule which binds to a receptor and reduces its basal (ie unstimulated by agonist) activity sometimes even to zero.



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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20120270230 A1
Publish Date
10/25/2012
Document #
13493898
File Date
06/11/2012
USPTO Class
435/72
Other USPTO Classes
530350, 536 235, 43525233, 436501, 435/78, 530402, 4352523, 43525421, 43525423, 435348, 435361, 435369, 435365, 435352, 435349, 530412
International Class
/
Drawings
35


G-protein


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