CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
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The present disclosure is a divisional of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/117,911 filed on Apr. 29, 2005, and is incorporated herein by reference.
The present application is related in general subject matter to U.S. Pat. No. 730,359, titled Method and Apparatus For Continuously Feeding And Pressurizing A Solid Material Into A High Pressure System, patented Dec. 4, 2007, assigned to The Boeing Co., and hereby incorporated by reference into the present application. The subject matter of the present application is also related to U.S. Pat. No. 6,920,836, titled Regeneratively Cooled Synthesis Gas Generator, patented Dec. 4, 2007, the disclosure of which is also hereby incorporated by reference. Additionally, the subject matter of the present invention is related to U.S. Pat. No. 7,547,423, titled Compact High Efficiency Gasifier, patented Jun. 16, 2009. Finally, the subject matter of the present application is related to U.S. Pat. No. 7,717,046, titled High Pressure Dry Coal Slurry Extrusion Pump, patented May 18, 2010, the disclosure of which is also hereby incorporated by reference into the present application.
FIELD OF INVENTION
The invention relates generally to gasification of carbonaceous materials, such as coal or petcoke. More particularly, the invention relates to an injection device and method used to achieve a high rate of efficiency in the gasification of such carbonaceous materials.
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OF THE INVENTION
Electricity and electrically powered systems are becoming ubiquitous and it is becoming increasingly desirable to find sources of power. For example, various systems may convert various petrochemical compounds, e.g. carbonaceous materials such as coal and petcoke, into electrical energy. Further, such petrochemical compounds are used to create various other materials such as steam that are used to drive steam powered turbines.
The gasification of carbonaceous material such as coal and petcoke into synthesis gas (syngas), e.g. mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, is a well-known industrial process used in the petrochemical and gas power turbine industries. Over the last 20 years, entrained flow coal gasifiers have become the leading process in the production of synthesis gas. However, these entrained flow gasifiers fail to make use of rapid mix injector technology. The failure to use such technologies causes gasifier volumes and gasifier capital costs to be much higher than necessary. Rapid mix injector technology is expected to reduce these entrained flow gasifier volumes by about one order of magnitude, i.e. by a factor of 10. Getting the overall capital cost of these coal gasifiers down by significantly reducing gasifier volumes is very desirable.
Since 1975, Rocketdyne has designed and tested a number of rapid mix injectors for coal gasification. Most of these designs and test programs were conducted under U.S. Department of Energy contracts between 1975 and 1985. The primary workhorse injector used on these DOE programs was the multi-element pentad. Each pentad (4-on-1) element used four high velocity gas streams which impinged onto a central coal slurry stream. The four gas stream orifices were placed 90 degrees apart from each other on a circle surrounding the central coal slurry orifice. The impingement angle between a gas jet and the central coal slurry stream was typically 30 degrees. Each pentad element was sized to flow approximately 4-tons/hr (i.e., 100 tons/day) of dry coal so that a commercial gasifier operating at a 3,600 ton/day capacity would use approximately 36 pentad elements.
Generally, known rapid mix injectors or coal gasification that impinge oxygen gas or a mixture of oxygen and steam on a slurry stream are effective, but degrade quickly because of the high coal/oxygen combustion temperatures that occur very close to the injector face under local oxidation environmental conditions. These combustion temperatures can exceed 5,000° F. in many instances. Additionally, such known rapid mix injectors are susceptible to plugging within the coal slurry stream.
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OF THE INVENTION
A gasifier having a gasification chamber and an injection module that includes a two-stage slurry splitter and an injector face plate with a coolant system incorporated therein is provided, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention. The injector module is utilized to inject a high pressure slurry stream into the gasification chamber and impinge a high pressure reactant with the high pressure slurry stream within the gasification chamber to generate a gasification reaction that converts the slurry into a synthesis gas.
The two-stage slurry splitter includes a main cavity into which a main slurry flow is provided. The main cavity includes a plurality of first stage flow dividers that divide the main slurry flow into a plurality of secondary slurry flows that flow into a plurality of secondary cavities that extend from the main cavity at distal ends of the first stage flow dividers. Each secondary cavity includes a plurality of second stage flow dividers that divide each secondary slurry flow into a plurality of tertiary slurry flows that 20 flow into a plurality of slurry injection tubes extending from the secondary cavities at distal ends of the second stage flow dividers. The tertiary flows are injected as high pressure slurry streams into the gasification chamber via the slurry injection tubes. The reactant is impinged at high pressure on each high pressure slurry stream via a plurality of annular impinging orifices incorporated into the injector face plate. Each annular impinging orifice surrounds a corresponding one of the slurry injection tubes, which extend through the injector face plate. Particularly, each annular impinging orifice produces a high pressure annular shaped spray that circumferentially impinges the corresponding slurry stream from 360°. That is, the slurry stream has a full 360° of the reactant impinging it.
The resulting gasification reaction generates extremely high temperatures and abrasive matter, e.g. slag, at or near the injector face plate. However, the coolant system incorporated within the injector face plate maintains the injector face plate at a temperature sufficient to substantially reduce or prevent damage to the injector face plate by the high temperature and/or abrasive matter.
The features, functions, and advantages of the present invention can be achieved independently in various embodiments of the present inventions or may be combined in yet other embodiments.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
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The present invention will become more fully understood from the detailed description and accompanying drawings, wherein;
FIG. 1 is an isometric view of a gasifier system including an injector module and a gasification chamber, in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view of a two-stage slurry splitter included in the injector module shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is sectional view of the injector module shown in FIG. 1, illustrating one embodiment of a cooling system for an injector face plate of the injector module;
FIG. 4 is an isometric view of a portion of the injector face plate shown in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a sectional view of the injector module shown in FIG. 1, illustrating another embodiment of a cooling system for the injector face plate;
FIG. 6 is an isometric view of a reactant side of a portion of the injector face plate shown in FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is an isometric view of a gasifier side of a portion of the injector face plate shown in FIG. 5; and
FIG. 8 is a flow chart illustrating a method for gasifying carbonaceous materials utilizing the gasification system shown in FIG. 1.
Corresponding reference numerals indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of drawings.
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OF THE INVENTION
The following description of the preferred embodiments is merely exemplary in nature and is in no way intended to limit the invention, its application or uses. Additionally, the advantages provided by the preferred embodiments, as described below, are exemplary in nature and not all preferred embodiments provide the same advantages or the same degree of advantages.
FIG. 1 illustrates a gasifier system 10 including an injector module 14 coupled to a gasification chamber 18. The injector module is adapted to inject a high pressure slurry stream into the gasification chamber 18 and impinge a high pressure reactant onto the high pressure slurry stream to generate a gasification reaction within the gasification chamber 18 that converts the slurry into a synthesis gas. More specifically, the injector module 14 mixes a carbonaceous material, such as coal or petcoke, with a slurry medium, such as nitrogen N2, carbon dioxide, CO2 or a synthesis gas, for example, a mixture of hydrogen and CO, to form the slurry.
The injector module 14 then injects the slurry, at a pressure, into the gasification chamber 18 and substantially simultaneously, injects other reactants, such as oxygen and steam, into the gasification chamber 18. Particularly, the injector module 14 impinges the other reactants on the slurry causing a gasification reaction that produces high energy content synthesis gas, for example, hydrogen and carbon monoxide.