The present embodiments relate to dentifrice compositions. In particular, the present embodiments relate to dentifrice compositions having a low water phase comprising effective amounts of polyphosphate and ionic active ingredients. The ionic active ingredients may include fluoride ions and metal ions such as stannous and zinc ion source.
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Polyphosphates and ionic active ingredients have been used in dentifrices to promote oral health. Polyphosphates are known anti-tartar agents that help retard calculus formation. Metal ions such as stannous and zinc ions are known to be effective anti-microbial agents. These metal ions provide anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque benefits and may also improve breath and reduce sensitivity. Stannous fluoride has been used in dentistry since the 1950's as a fluoride source to prevent dental caries. Similarly, zinc citrate has been shown to have anti-plaque, anti-gingivitis and anti-tartar efficacy. In addition, zinc has also shown its efficacy as an anti-malodor agent.
While such actives have previously been used in dentifrices, for several reasons it has proven challenging to provide these actives together in a stable single phase. Once such technical problem is to preserve the bioavailability of stannous ions and maximize the chemical stability of the stannous ion source. Certain polyphosphates are unstable in high aqueous systems. Such polyphosphates in an aqueous system are susceptible to hydrolysis unless they are present at a high pH, which is not compatible with high stannous availability. Stannous fluoride tends to precipitate stannous ions in aqueous environments, thereby reducing the efficacy of the stannous ions in the oral care composition. Additionally, the polyphosphates react with ionic fluoride in oral compositions at ambient temperature to produce monofluorophosphate ions and alter the pH of the composition. This reaction compromises the efficacy of the oral composition and its ability to provide stable ionic fluoride and polyphosphate to the oral surfaces.
Other attempts to provide such efficacious dentifrice compositions have reduced the amount of water present in the composition. Reducing the amount of water would theoretically reduce or eliminate the stability issues associated with the fluoride, polyphosphate and other ionic actives. However, reducing the level of water, and optionally replacing some or all of the removed water with a humectant, creates problems in obtaining acceptable rheology and thickening properties in the composition. When water, which is a highly polar solvent, is removed, conventional thickening agents such as carboxymethylcellulose (“CMC”) tend to inadequately gel up. Attempts to reduce water content in dentifrice compositions have included the dentifrices described in, e.g., EP 0 638 307 B1; U.S. Pat. No. 4,647,451; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,670,137. Such known formulations have been shown to exhibit progressive thickening over time, which prolongs the time period or even prevents the dentifrice from reaching a rheological steady state. Ideally, dentifrice formulations need to reach a steady state for consumer acceptance within two weeks. If a formulation routinely increases in viscosity over time, dispensing of the formulation will become difficult, which will likely result in consumer dissatisfaction.
U.S. Pat. No. 6,696,045 discloses dentifrice compositions comprising a single low water phase comprising polyphosphate and ionic active ingredients. Although compositions comprising glass H polyphosphate, which has a long chain of about 21 phosphate groups, and sodium or stannous fluoride are disclosed, with the sodium fluoride being optionally combined with zinc citrate and the stannous fluoride being optionally combined with zinc lactate, there is no disclosure of how to combine stannous, fluoride and zinc salts in a low water composition in combination with short chain length polyphosphates in a low water single phase system.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,578,293 discloses dentifrice compositions comprising a high water phase comprising polyphosphate and ionic active ingredients, including stannous ions.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,487,906 also discloses dentifrice compositions comprising a high water phase comprising polyphosphate and ionic active ingredients, including stannous ions.
Other attempts to provide dentifrice compositions having these actives in efficacious amounts involved the use of dual compartmented packaging wherein the reactive ingredients are physically separated until the time of brushing. (See, e.g., WO98/22079, “Dentifrice Compositions Containing Polyphosphate and Fluoride.”) However, such dual-compartmented packages are typically considerably more expensive than the conventional laminate tubes that have been used for many years to contain and dispense dentifrices. They also may be problematic in terms of ease of consumer use and uniform dispensing of approximately equal amounts of each composition during each consumer use. Therefore it remains desirable to provide single phase compositions that can be packaged in conventional laminate squeeze tubes.
The description herein of certain advantages and disadvantages of known compositions, methods, and apparatus is not intended to limit the scope of the embodiments to their exclusion (or inclusion, as the case may be). Indeed, certain embodiments may include one or more known compounds, methods, or apparatus without suffering from the afore-mentioned disadvantages.
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There is a need in the art to provide dentifrice compositions that can effectively combine sources of stannous, fluoride, and zinc ions in combination with a polyphosphate in a low water single phase system that has efficacious delivery of water-unstable actives and/or actives that are reactive with respect to each other in a single phase. There is also a need in the art to provide low water single phase dentifrice compositions that have an improved rheological profile, and in particular have a stable rheology that effectively reduces or eliminates progressive thickening of the composition over time which in turn provides a composition that can effectively be dispensed over the period of its shelf life.
In a first aspect, the embodiments described herein provide a dentifrice composition comprising in a single phase: an orally acceptable vehicle; a source of fluoride ions; a source of stannous ions; a source of zinc ions; and at least one polyphosphate salt selected from the group consisting of inorganic polyphosphate salts that have equal to or less than three phosphorous atoms; wherein the dentifrice composition has a total water content of less than about 10% based on the weight of the composition.
In a second aspect, the embodiments described herein provide a dentifrice composition comprising, in a single phase, an orally acceptable vehicle, the vehicle including a thickening agent comprising a polymer system comprising, in combination, a cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone and a gum, wherein the dentifrice composition has a total water content of less than about 10% based on the weight of the composition.
In a third aspect, the embodiments described herein provide a method for the treatment and prevention of bacterial plaque accumulation and/or for the prevention of erosion or demineralization comprising: administering to the oral cavity the dentifrice composition described above.
In a fourth aspect, the embodiments described herein provide a method for the manufacture of a dentifrice composition, the method comprising: providing a source of stannous ions; mixing the source of stannous ions with an aqueous buffer system adapted to chelate the stannous ions in a premix formed thereby; and combining the premix with at least one active component and an orally acceptable vehicle of the dentifrice composition.
As will be demonstrated herein, the preferred embodiments can provide a dentifrice that provides multiple therapeutic benefits by combining stannous ions and fluoride ions, e.g. as stannous fluoride, zinc ions, e.g. as zinc citrate, and polyphosphates, e.g. in the form of tetrasodium pyrophosphate/sodium tripolyphosphate. The use of a particular buffer system can stabilize the stannous ions in the presence of the zinc ions and polyphosphates, and leave the stannous ions active in the single phase low water composition for effective anti-microbial action when used for cleaning the teeth.
The preferred embodiments of the present invention also can provide a dentifrice formulation having a stabilized stannous ion source and a polyphosphate, for example tetrasodium pyrophosphate and/or sodium tripolyphosphate, in a single tube.
The preferred embodiments of the present invention also can provide a low water dentifrice system combining, in a single tube, stannous fluoride, zinc citrate and polyphosphates, in particular having a phosphorous atom of equal to or less than 3, for example tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate, in a single phase system that provides bioavailable tin, zinc, fluoride and polyphosphate to the oral surfaces.
The preferred embodiments of the present invention also may provide a low water single phase dentifrice system having a stable rheology that does not tend to progressively thicken over time, but instead thickens quickly, for example within a few days of manufacture, and reaches a stable viscosity.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
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FIG. 1 is a graph showing the relationship between Brookfield viscosity and time (days) for the dentifrice composition of Formula B in the examples.
FIG. 2 is a graph showing the relationship between Brookfield viscosity and time (days) for a comparative dentifrice composition.
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OF THE EMBODIMENTS
The following definitions and non-limiting guidelines should be considered in reviewing the description of the invention set forth herein. The headings (such as “Background” and “Summary”) and sub-headings used herein are intended only for general organization of topics within the disclosure of the invention, and are not intended to limit the disclosure of the invention or any aspect thereof. In particular, subject matter disclosed in the “Background” may include aspects of technology within the scope of the invention, and may not constitute a recitation of prior art. Subject matter disclosed in the “Summary” is not an exhaustive or complete disclosure of the entire scope of the invention or any embodiments thereof. Classification or discussion of a material within a section of this specification as having a particular utility (e.g., as being an “active” or a “carrier” ingredient) is made for convenience, and no inference should be drawn that the material must necessarily or solely function in accordance with its classification herein when it is used in any given composition.
All publications, patent applications, and issued patents mentioned herein are hereby incorporated in their entirety by reference. The citation of documents herein does not constitute an admission that those documents are prior art or have any relevance to the patentability of the invention disclosed herein. Any discussion of the content of documents cited in the Introduction is intended merely to provide a general summary of assertions made by the authors of the documents, and does not constitute an admission as to the accuracy of the content of such documents.
The description and specific examples, while indicating embodiments of the invention, are intended for purposes of illustration only and are not intended to limit the scope of the invention. Moreover, recitation of multiple embodiments having stated features is not intended to exclude other embodiments having additional features, or other embodiments incorporating different combinations of the stated features. Specific examples are provided for illustrative purposes of how to make and use the compositions and methods of this invention and, unless explicitly stated otherwise, are not intended to be a representation that given embodiments of this invention have, or have not, been made or tested.
As used herein, the words “preferred” and “preferably” refer to embodiments of the invention that afford certain benefits, under certain circumstances. However, other embodiments also may be preferred, under the same or other circumstances. Furthermore, the recitation of one or more preferred embodiments does not imply that other embodiments are not useful, and is not intended to exclude other embodiments from the scope of the invention.
As used herein, “comprising” encompasses “consisting of” and “consisting essentially of.” As used herein, the word “include,” and its variants, is intended to be non-limiting, such that recitation of items in a list is not to the exclusion of other like items that may also be useful in the materials, compositions, devices, and methods of this invention.
As used herein, the term “about” when applied to the value for a parameter of a composition or method of this invention, indicates that the calculation or the measurement of the value allows some slight imprecision without having a substantial effect on the chemical or physical attributes of the composition or method. If, for some reason, the imprecision provided by “about” is not otherwise understood in the art with this ordinary meaning, then “about” as used herein indicates a possible variation of up to 5% in the value.
All percentages used herein are by weight of the total dentifrice composition, unless otherwise specified. The ratios used herein are weight ratios of the respective components, unless otherwise specified. All measurements are made at 25° C., unless otherwise specified.
As used throughout, ranges are used as a shorthand for describing each and every value that is within the range. Any value within the range can be selected as the terminus of the range.