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Methods for detection of depressive disorders

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Title: Methods for detection of depressive disorders.
Abstract: The present invention relates generally to the detection or diagnosis of depressive disorders, and provides methods and compositions useful for this purpose. In particular, the present invention provides biomarkers for the detection or diagnosis of major depressive disorder, and methods of use thereof. ...


Inventors: Eva Redei, Brian Andrus
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120094859 - Class: 506 9 (USPTO) -


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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120094859, Methods for detection of depressive disorders.

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CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

The present application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/394,449, filed Oct. 19, 2010, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates generally to the detection or diagnosis of depressive disorders, and provides methods and compositions useful for this purpose. In particular, the present invention provides biomarkers for the detection or diagnosis of major depressive disorder, and methods of use thereof.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Depressive disorders (e.g. Major depressive disorder (MDD)) are the leading cause of disability in the United States when measured as total time lost to disability, affecting more than 18 million people annually in the USA alone. Depressive disorders, the most common of affective illnesses, include a large set of illnesses ranging from seasonal depressive disorder to chronic depression. There are currently no known available biological markers for depression; diagnosis is made by physicians or psychologists based on structured interviews with the patients. Depressive disorders are among only a few major illnesses that remain reliant upon subjective diagnoses. This contributes to under recognition, trivialization and stigmatization of these disabling illnesses.

Pre-adult onset of MDD, which occurs most often during adolescence, occurs in approximately 40% of patients with MDD. This sub-group has a poor prognosis, with high levels of adult affective disorder, substance use disorders, physical illness, and social maladjustment. This dysfunction includes problematic parenting behaviors in both women and men, with negative consequences for offspring. Thus, the public health benefit of treating adolescent MDD affects not only teens, but subsequent generations as well. In addition, the disorder is the major psychiatric risk factor for teen suicide, with rates in this group being more than 20 times greater than in the general adolescent population.

Treatments for adolescent MDD exist but response rates vary, medication side effects are unpredictable, and adolescents have lower response rates than adults. Exacerbating the problem is that 40% of youths with clinically significant levels of depression never come to the attention of a medical or mental health care provider. Many of these issues with treatment and identification are due, at least in part, to a diagnostic process that relies primarily on patient self-report. While symptom report is critical to the diagnostic process, it is subject to recall bias, the vagaries of culture-, gender-, education-influenced interpretations by the patients, and in the case of parent-report, the parent\'s own psychological state. Symptoms and signs, therefore, do not always discriminate between youths with and without MDD. The current diagnostic practice results in some youths who need treatment but are not getting it, and some who get treatment but may not need it. MDD treatments (e.g. antidepressants and psychotherapy) carry risks of adverse effects, and the economic cost of inappropriate treatment is high, as the effects of antidepressant medication on the developing adolescent brain are not completely understood. Conversely, the individual, societal, and economic costs of not treating a youth who truly does have MDD can also be quite high, and include suicide, hospitalization, and/or protracted impairment. The costs of misclassification for research studies are also significant in wasted dollars, time, and incorrect results.

SUMMARY

OF THE INVENTION

In some embodiments, the present invention provides a method for assessing depressive disorders in a subject, comprising: (a) providing a sample from a subject; (b) characterizing the levels of gene expression of one or more genes selected from the genes listed in Tables 1 and 4; and (c) identifying risk of depressive disorders in the subject based on the levels of gene expression and/or protein expression. In some embodiments, the subject is a human subject. In some embodiments, the human subject is suspected of suffering from depressive disorder.

In some embodiments, the subject is suspected of suffering from MDD. In some embodiments, assessing depressive disorders comprises: detecting, quantifying, diagnosing, indicating, or determining the presence, risk, severity, and/or type of depressive disorder.

In some embodiments, the subject is an adolescent. In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of the genes listed in Table 1. In some embodiments, the genes comprise a variant of one or more of the genes listed in Table 1 (e.g. >50% identity, >60% identity, >70% identity, >80% identity, >90% identity, >95% identity, >98% identity, >99% identity). In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of the genes listed in Table 4. In some embodiments, the genes comprise a variant of one or more of the genes listed in Table 4 (e.g. >50% identity, >60% identity, >70% identity, >80% identity, >90% identity, >95% identity, >98% identity, >99% identity). In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of ADCY3, ATP2C1, CD59, FAM46A, FMR1, GNAQ, IGSF4A/CADM1, MAF, MARCKS, NAGA, PTPRM, TLR7, and ZNF291/SCAPER.

In some embodiments, the subject is an adult. In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of the genes listed in Table 1. In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of FAM46A, MARCKS, ATP2C1, NAGA, TLR7, ADCY3, ASAH1, CD59, FOS, IGSF4A/CADM1, ZNF291/SCAPER, ATP11C, MAF, GNAQ, FMR1, and PTPRM. In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of FAM46A, CD59, IGSF4A/CADM1, NAGA and TLR7.

In some embodiments, characterizing the levels of gene expression comprises detecting the amount of mRNA. In some embodiments, detecting the amount of mRNA comprises exposing a sample to nucleic acid probes complementary to the mRNA. In some embodiments, nucleic acid probes are covalently linked to a solid surface. In some embodiments, detecting the amount of mRNA in a sample comprises use of a detection technique selected from the group consisting of microarray analysis, reverse transcriptase PCR, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and hybridization analysis.

In some embodiments, characterizing the levels of gene expression comprises detecting the amount of protein (e.g. in a sample). In some embodiments, detecting the amount of protein comprises using antibodies, antibody fragments, or other protein binding agents.

In some embodiments, the present invention provides kits and/or panels for detecting depressive disorders in subjects, comprising reagents for detecting two or more genes listed in Tables 1 and/or 4, or proteins encoded thereby. In some embodiments, the subject is a human subject. In some embodiments, the genes comprise a variant of one or more of the genes listed in Table 1 (e.g. >50% identity, >60% identity, >70% identity, >80% identity, >90% identity, >95% identity, >98% identity, >99% identity). In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of the genes listed in Table 4. In some embodiments, the genes comprise a variant of one or more of the genes listed in Table 4 (e.g. >50% identity, >60% identity, >70% identity, >80% identity, >90% identity, >95% identity, >98% identity, >99% identity). In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of ADCY3, ATP2C1, CD59, FAM46A, FMR1, GNAQ, IGSF4A/CADM1, MAF, MARCKS, NAGA, PTPRM, TLR7, and ZNF291/SCAPER. In some embodiments, the subject is an adult. In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of the genes listed in Table 1. In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of FAM46A, MARCKS, ATP2C1, NAGA, TLR7, ADCY3, ASAH1, CD59, FOS, IGSF4A/CADM1, ZNF291/SCAPER, ATP11C, MAF, GNAQ, FMR1, and PTPRM. In some embodiments, the genes comprise one or more of FAM46A, CD59, IGSF4A/CADM1, NAGA and TLR7.

In some embodiments, the present invention provides methods for assessing chronic stress in a subject, comprising: (a) characterizing the levels of gene expression of one or more genes in a sample from a subject, wherein said one or more genes are selected from the genes listed in Table 2; and (b) identifying risk of chronic stress in said subject based on said levels of gene expression. In some embodiments, the subject is a human subject. In some embodiments, the genes comprise a variant of one or more of the genes listed in Table 2 (e.g. >50% identity, >60% identity, >70% identity, >80% identity, >90% identity, >95% identity, >98% identity, >99% identity).

In some embodiments, the present invention provides kits or panels for detecting chronic stress in a subject comprising reagents for detecting two or more genes listed in Table 2, or proteins encoded thereby. In some embodiments, the subject is a human subject. In some embodiments, the subject is a human subject. In some embodiments, the genes comprise a variant of one or more of the genes listed in Table 2 (e.g. >50% identity, >60% identity, >70% identity, >80% identity, >90% identity, >95% identity, >98% identity, >99% identity).

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 shows plots validating adolescent biomarker genes by quantitative RT-PCR; RNA was prepared from the blood of adolescents with MDD and ND controls; the amounts of specific mRNA were normalized to 18s rRNA expression.

FIG. 2 shows plots validating adult biomarker genes by quantitative RT-PCR; RNA was prepared from the blood of adult subjects with MDD, and age- and race-matched controls; the amounts of specific mRNA were normalized to 18s rRNA expression.



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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20120094859 A1
Publish Date
04/19/2012
Document #
13276565
File Date
10/19/2011
USPTO Class
506/9
Other USPTO Classes
435/612, 436501, 506 16, 506 18
International Class
/
Drawings
2



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