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Sorbent bodies comprising activated carbon, processes for making them, and their use

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Title: Sorbent bodies comprising activated carbon, processes for making them, and their use.
Abstract: Sorbent bodies comprising activated carbon, processes for making them, and methods of using them. The sorbent bodies can be used to remove toxic elements from a fluid, such as from a gas stream. For instance, the sorbent bodies may be used to remove elemental mercury or mercury in an oxidized state from a coal combustion flue gas. ...


Corning Incorporated - Browse recent Corning patents - Corning, NY, US
Inventors: Kishor Purushottam Gadkaree, Benedict Yorkeorke Johnson, Pei Qiong Kuang, Anbo Liu, Youchun Shi
USPTO Applicaton #: #20120051991 - Class: 423210 (USPTO) - 03/01/12 - Class 423 
Chemistry Of Inorganic Compounds > Modifying Or Removing Component Of Normally Gaseous Mixture

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20120051991, Sorbent bodies comprising activated carbon, processes for making them, and their use.

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This application claims priority to U.S. application Ser. No. 12/599,896, which is a national stage entry of PCT Application No. PCT/US08/06082, which is a continuation-in part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/977,843, filed on Oct. 26, 2007, which claims priority to U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/966,558, filed on May 14, 2007.

FIELD OF THE DISCLOSURE

This disclosure relates to sorbent bodies comprising activated carbon, processes for making them, and methods of using them. The sorbent bodies can be used to remove toxic elements from a fluid, such as from a gas stream. For instance, the sorbent bodies may be used to remove elemental mercury or mercury in an oxidized state from a coal combustion flue gas.

BACKGROUND

Emissions of toxins into the atmosphere have become environmental issues of increasing concern because of the dangers posed to human health. For instance, coal-fired power plants and medical waste incineration are major sources of human activity related mercury emissions. Mercury emitted to the atmosphere can travel thousands of miles before being deposited to the earth. Studies also show that mercury from the atmosphere can also be deposited in areas near the emission source.

It is estimated that there are 48 tons of mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants in the United States annually. One DOE-Energy Information Administration annual energy outlook projected that coal consumption for electricity generation will increase from 976 million tons in 2002 to 1,477 million tons in 2025 as the utilization of coal-fired generation capacity increases. However, mercury emission control regulations have not been rigorously enforced for coal-fired power plants. A major reason is a lack of effective control technologies available at a reasonable cost, especially for elemental mercury control.

One technology that has been used for controlling elemental mercury, as well as for oxidized mercury, is activated carbon injection (ACI). The ACI process includes injecting activated carbon powder into the flue gas stream and using a fabric fiber or electrostatic precipitator to collect the activated carbon powder that has adsorbed mercury. Generally, ACI technologies require a high carbon to mercury ratio to achieve the desired mercury removal level (>90%), which results in a high cost for sorbent material. The high carbon to mercury ratio suggests that ACI does not utilize the mercury sorption capacity of carbon powder efficiently. Additionally, if only one particle collection system is used, the commercial value of fly ash is sacrificed due to its mixing with contaminated activated carbon powder. A system with two separate powder collectors and injecting activated carbon sorbent between the first collector for fly ash and the second collector, or a baghouse, for activated carbon powder, may be used. A baghouse with high collection efficiency may be installed in the power plant facilities. However, these measures are costly and may be impractical, especially for small power plants.

Since water-soluble (oxidized) mercury is the main mercury species in bituminous coal flue gas with high concentrations of SO2 and HCl, bituminous coal-fired plants may be able to remove 90% mercury using a wet scrubber combined with NOx and/or SO2 control technologies. Mercury emission control can also be achieved as a co-benefit of particulate emission control. Chelating agents may be added to a wet scrubber to sequestrate the mercury from emitting again. A chelating agent adds to the cost due to the problems of corrosion of the metal scrubber equipment and treatment of chelating solution. Elemental mercury is the dominant mercury species in the flue gas of sub-bituminous coal or lignite coal, and a wet scrubber is not effective for removal of elemental mercury unless additional chemicals are added to the system. It is undesirable, however, to add additional potentially environmentally hazardous material into the flue gas system.

Certain industrial gases, such as syngas and combustion flue gas, may contain toxic elements such as cadmium, chromium, lead, barium, beryllium, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, zinc, copper, manganese, antimony, silver, thallium, arsenic or selenium, in addition to mercury. Like mercury, these toxic elements may exist in elemental form or in a chemical compound comprising the element. It is highly desired that the presence of one or more of these toxic elements be substantially reduced before a syngas is supplied for industrial and/or residential use or before a gas is emitted to the atmosphere.

There is a genuine need of a sorbent material capable of removing mercury and/or other toxic elements from fluids such as flue gas and syngas, with a higher capacity than activated carbon powder alone. It is also desired that such sorbent material be produced at a reasonable cost and conveniently used.

SUMMARY

Embodiments of the invention relate to sorbent bodies comprising activated carbon, processes for making them, and methods of using them. The sorbent bodies can be used to remove toxic elements from a fluid, such as from a gas stream. For instance, the sorbent bodies may be used to remove elemental mercury or mercury in an oxidized state from a coal combustion flue gas.

Embodiments of the invention have one or more of the following advantages. Sorbent bodies of the invention comprising activated carbon having high specific surface area and a large number of active sites capable of sorbing or promoting sorption of a toxic element can be produced and used effectively for the sorption of toxic elements, including arsenic, cadmium, mercury and selenium. The sorbent bodies of certain embodiments of the invention are effective for sorption of not just oxidized mercury, but also elemental mercury. Further, the sorbent bodies according to certain embodiments of the invention are effective in removing mercury from flue gases with high and low concentrations of HCl alike. Sorbent bodies according to certain embodiments of the invention are also effective in removing mercury from flue gases with high concentration of SO3.

Additional features and advantages will be set forth in the detailed description which follows, and in part will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art from the description or recognized by practicing the invention as described in the written description and claims hereof, as well as the appended drawings.

The foregoing general description and the following detailed description are merely exemplary of the invention, and are intended to provide an overview or framework to understanding the nature and character of the invention as it is claimed.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings are included to provide a further understanding of the invention, and are incorporated in and constitute a part of this specification.

FIG. 1 is a diagram comparing the mercury removal capability of a tested sample of a sorbent comprising an in-situ extruded metal catalyst according to the invention and a sorbent which comprises impregnated metal but no in-situ extruded metal catalyst over time.

FIG. 2 is a diagram showing the inlet mercury concentration (CHg0) and outlet mercury concentration (CHg1) of a sorbent body according to one embodiment of the invention at various inlet mercury concentrations.

FIG. 3 is an SEM image of part of a cross-section of a sorbent body according to one embodiment of the invention comprising in-situ extruded metal catalyst.

FIG. 4 is an SEM image of part of a cross-section of a comparative sorbent body comprising post-activation impregnated metal catalyst.



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Chemistry of inorganic compounds
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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20120051991 A1
Publish Date
03/01/2012
Document #
13292706
File Date
11/09/2011
USPTO Class
423210
Other USPTO Classes
502180, 502183, 502171
International Class
/
Drawings
4



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