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1,5-diphenylpyrazoles ii as hsp90 inhibitors

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Title: 1,5-diphenylpyrazoles ii as hsp90 inhibitors.
Abstract: Novel 1,5-diphenylpyrazole derivatives of the formula (I) in which R1-R6 have the meanings indicated in claim 1, are HSP90 inhibitors and can be used for the preparation of a medicament for the treatment of diseases in which the inhibition, regulation and/or modulation of HSP90 plays a role. ...

Browse recent Millen, White, Zelano & Branigan, P.C. patents - Arlington, VA, US
Inventors: Hans-Michael EGGENWEILER, Michael Wolf, Hans-Peter Buchstaller, Christian Sirrenberg
USPTO Applicaton #: #20110028485 - Class: 51425205 (USPTO) - 02/03/11 - Class 514 
Drug, Bio-affecting And Body Treating Compositions > Designated Organic Active Ingredient Containing (doai) >Heterocyclic Carbon Compounds Containing A Hetero Ring Having Chalcogen (i.e., O,s,se Or Te) Or Nitrogen As The Only Ring Hetero Atoms Doai >Hetero Ring Is Six-membered Consisting Of Two Nitrogens And Four Carbon Atoms (e.g., Pyridazines, Etc.) >1,4-diazine As One Of The Cyclos >The Additional Hetero Ring Is A Five-membered Nitrogen Hetero Ring

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The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20110028485, 1,5-diphenylpyrazoles ii as hsp90 inhibitors.

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The invention was based on the object of finding novel compounds having valuable properties, in particular those which can be used for the preparation of medicaments.

The present invention relates to compounds in which the inhibition, regulation and/or modulation of HSP90 plays a role, furthermore to pharmaceutical compositions which comprise these compounds, and to the use of the compounds for the treatment of diseases in which HSP90 plays a role.

The correct folding and conformation of proteins in cells is ensured by molecular chaperones and is critical for the regulation of the equilibrium between protein synthesis and degradation. Chaperones are important for the regulation of many central functions of cells, such as, for example, cell proliferation and apoptosis (Jolly and Morimoto, 2000; Smith et al., 1998; Smith, 2001).

Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs)

The cells of a tissue react to external stress, such as, for example, heat, hypoxia, oxidative stress, or toxic substances, such as heavy metals or alcohols, with activation of a number of chaperones which are known under the term “heat shock proteins” (HSPs).

The activation of HSPs protects the cell against damage initiated by such stress factors, accelerates the restoration of the physiological state and results in a stress-tolerant state of the cell.

Besides this originally discovered protective mechanism promoted by HSPs against external stress, further important chaperone functions have also been described in the course of time for individual HSPs under normal stress-free conditions. Thus, various HSPs regulate, for example, correct folding, intracellular localisation and function or regulated degradation of a number of biologically important proteins of cells.

HSPs form a gene family with individual gene products whose cellular expression, function and localisation differs in different cells. The naming and classification within the family is carried out on the basis of their molecular weight, for example HSP27, HSP70, and HSP90.

Some human diseases are based on incorrect protein folding (see review, for example, Tytell et al., 2001; Smith et al., 1998). The development of therapies which engages in the mechanism of the chaperone-dependent protein folding could therefore be useful in such cases. For example, incorrectly folded proteins result in aggregation of protein with neurodegenerative progression in the case of Alzheimer\'s disease, prion diseases or Huntington\'s syndrome. Incorrect protein folding may also result in loss of wild-type function, which can have the consequence of incorrectly regulated molecular and physiological function.

HSPs are also ascribed great importance in tumour diseases. There are, for example, indications that the expression of certain HSPs correlates with the stage of progression of tumours (Martin et al., 2000; Conroy et al., 1996; Kawanishi et al., 1999; Jameel et al., 1992; Hoang et al., 2000; Lebeau et al., 1991).

The fact that HSP90 plays a role in a number of central oncogenic signalling pathways in the cell and certain natural products having cancer-inhibiting activity target HSP90 has led to the concept that inhibition of the function of HSP90 would be sensible in the treatment of tumour diseases.

An HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), a derivative of geldanamycin, is currently undergoing clinical trials.

HSP90 represents approximately 1-2% of the total cellular protein mass. It is usually in the form of a dimer in the cell and is associated with a multiplicity of proteins, so-called co-chaperones (see, for example, Pratt, 1997). HSP90 is essential for the vitality of cells (Young at al., 2001) and plays a key role in the response to cellular stress by interaction with many proteins whose native folding has been modified by external stress, such as, for example, heat shock, in order to restore the original folding or to prevent aggregation of the proteins (Smith et al., 1998).

There are also indications that HSP90 is of importance as buffer against the effects of mutations, presumably through correction of incorrect protein folding caused by the mutation (Rutherford and Lindquist, 1998).

In addition, HSP90 also has a regulatory importance. Under physiological conditions, HSP90, together with its homologue in the endoplasmatic reticulum, GRP94, plays a role in the cell balance for ensuring the stability of the conformation and maturing of various client key proteins. These can be divided into three groups: receptors for steroid hormones, Ser/Thr or tyrosine kinases (for example ERBB2, RAF-1, CDK4 and LCK) and a collection of various proteins, such as, for example, mutated p53 or the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT. Each of these proteins takes on a key role in the regulation of physiological and biochemical processes of cells.

The preserved HSP90 family in humans consists of four genes, cytosolic HSP90α, the inducible HSP90β isoform (Hickey et al., 1989), GRP94 in the endoplasmatic reticulum (Argon et al., 1999) and HSP75/TRAP1 in the mitochondrial matrix (Felts et al., 2000). It is assumed that all members of the family have a similar mode of action, but, depending on their localisetion in the cell, bind to different client proteins. For example, ERBB2 is a specific client protein of GRP94 (Argon et al., 1999), while the type 1 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNFR1) or the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) have been found to be clients of TRAP1 (Song et al., 1995; Chen et al., 1996).

HSP90 is involved in a number of complex interactions with a large number of client proteins and regulatory proteins (Smith, 2001). Although precise molecular details have not yet been clarified, biochemical experiments and investigations with the aid of X-ray crystallography in recent years have increasingly been able to decipher details of the chaperone function of HSP90 (Prodromou et al., 1997; Stebbins et al., 1997). Accordingly, HSP90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone (Prodromou et al, 1997), with dimerisation being important for ATP hydrolysis. The binding of ATP results in the formation of a toroidal dimer structure, in which the two N-terminal domains come into close contact with one another and act as a switch in the conformation (Prodromou and Pearl, 2000).

Known HSP90 Inhibitors

The first class of HSP90 inhibitors to be discovered were benzoquinone ansamycins with the compounds herbimycin A and geldanamycin. Originally, the reversion of the malignant phenotype in fibroblasts which had been induced by transformation with the v-Src oncogene was detected with them (Uehara et al., 1985).

Later, a strong antitumoural activity was demonstrated in vitro (Schulte et al., 1998) and in vivo in animal models (Supko et al., 1995).

Immune precipitation and investigations on affinity matrices then showed that the principal mechanism of action of geldanamycin involves binding to HSP90 (Whitesell et al., 1994; Schulte and Neckers, 1998). In addition, X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that geldanamycin competes for the ATP binding site and inhibits the intrinsic ATPase activity of HSP90 (Prodromou et al., 1997; Panaretou et al., 1998). This prevents the formation of the multimeric HSP90 complex, with its property of functioning as chaperone for client proteins. As a consequence, client proteins are degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

The geldanamycin derivative 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) showed an unchanged property in the inhibition of HSP90, the degradation of client proteins and antitumoural activity in cell cultures and in xenograft tumour models (Schulte et al, 1998; Kelland et al, 1999), but had significantly lower liver cytotoxicity than geldanamycin (Page et all 1997). 17AAG is currently undergoing phase I/II clinical trials.

Radicicol, a macrocyclic antibiotic, likewise exhibited revision of the v-Src and v-Ha-Ras-induced malignant phenotype of fibroblasts (Kwon et all 1992; Zhao et al, 1995). Radicicol degrades a large number of signal proteins as a consequence of HSP90 inhibition (Schulte et al., 1998). X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that radicicol likewise binds to the N-terminal domain of HSP90 and inhibits the intrinsic ATPase activity (Roe et al., 1998).

Antibiotics of the coumarine type, as is known, bind to the ATP binding site of the HSP90 homolog DNA gyrase in bacteria. The coumarine, Novobiocin, binds to the carboxy-terminal end of HSP90, i.e. to a different site in HSP90 than the benzoquinone-ansamycins and radicicol, which bind to the N-terminal end of HSP90 (Marcu et al., 2000b).

The inhibition of HSP90 by novobiocin results in degradation of a large number of HSP90-dependent signal proteins (Marcu et al., 2000a).

The degradation of signal proteins, for example ERBB2, was demonstrated using PU3, an HSP90 inhibitor derived from purines. PU3 causes cell cycle arrest and differentiation in breast cancer cell lines (Chiosis et al., 2001).

HSP90 as Therapeutic Target

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Application #
US 20110028485 A1
Publish Date
Document #
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Other USPTO Classes
5483771, 544371, 5462754, 5483657, 5483641, 548247, 544238, 544405, 514406, 51425405, 514341, 514378, 51425505
International Class

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