The present invention relates to a panel and to a composite panel for making a construction and in particular a building construction.
In the building industry a known type of construction method has load-bearing side walls comprising prefabricated panels of the type known as sandwich panels in which polystyrene panels are used and where concrete is inserted between these polystyrene panels and where, before the concrete is inserted, the panels are held spaced apart by multiple and separate perpendicular elements.
The making of these separate means for spacing the panels involves considerable amounts of equipment and time and therefore entails unwanted costs for manufacturing companies.
In the traditional sandwich panel, metallic mesh is also inserted between the expanded polystyrene panels and acts as the resistant reinforcement of the panel.
The polystyrene panels also have an inner wall which is substantially smooth and an outer wall shaped so as to receive and support the corresponding mesh assembly of the composite panel.
These shaped panels made from polystyrene are obtained from a compact parallelepiped-shaped block by cutting with heated metallic wires.
This type of production process in addition to be being expensive also generates a quantity of expanded polystyrene waste which although it can be recycled must be stored and later transported back to a production site; this is another factor creating unwanted expenditure of time for the personnel of the manufacturing companies.
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
It is provided a panel for making a construction, in particular a building construction, especially an upright wall, comprising a panel body made from insulating material and in particular made from a plastic material, preferably expanded polystyrene, characterised in that it comprises projecting means which extend from one face of the panel.
In this way it is possible to obtain a panel which has, in a predefined manner, means suitable for keeping one surface of the panel spaced apart from a counteropposing element or surface, thus providing advantages in terms of time and costs in the subsequent stages of work.
The present invention also provides an advantageous procedure and a mould for making the panel.
Furthermore, a further advantageous aspect of the present invention is that it provides a composite panel employing, in particular, the present panel and a procedure for making the present composite panel.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The panel, with its technical characteristics and its various advantageous aspects will become more apparent from the detailed description which follows, with reference to the accompanying drawings which illustrate a preferred embodiment of the invention provided merely by way of example without restricting the scope of the inventive concept and in which:
FIG. 1 shows a perspective view of a preferred embodiment of the panel, or shaped block, made from polystyrene according to the present invention;
FIG. 2 shows a plan view from above of a preferred embodiment of the panel according to the present invention;
FIG. 3 shows a front view of a preferred embodiment of the panel;
FIG. 4 shows a longitudinal cross-section view along the line IV-IV in FIG. 3, of a preferred embodiment of the panel;
FIG. 5 shows a perspective view of a preferred embodiment of a composite panel according to the present invention;
FIG. 6 shows a perspective front view of a preferred embodiment of the composite panel;
FIG. 7 shows a longitudinal cross-section perspective view along the line VII-VII in FIG. 6, of a preferred embodiment of the composite panel.
DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION
FIGS. 1 to 4 show a preferred embodiment of a panel 10 for making a building construction, which, as illustrated, comprises a panel body 12 made in particular from an insulating material manufactured from a plastic material preferably an expanded material such as expanded polystyrene.
As the figures show, the panel 10 has a shaped profile comprising a wide longitudinal face 14, designed to form, during use, an outer face of the panel, a wide longitudinal face 16, on the side opposite the longitudinal face 14, designed to form, during use, an internal face of the panel, a narrow crossways head face or edge 18, a narrow crossways tail face or edge 20, which is on the longitudinal side opposite the head face 18 and, finally, faces which are reciprocally counteropposed and lengthened, or edges, sides or side edges 22 and 24.
Preferably, the panel according to the present invention is used to make an upright wall of a building construction and has an inner face 16 which is in contact with the concrete defining the resistant part of the building construction wall.
Advantageously, the present panel 10 comprises projecting means which extend from a corresponding face, in particular from a longitudinal face 16 of the panel.
In particular, the projecting means comprise the projections 26, 28, 30 which are designed to hold the panel at a distance apart from a counteropposing surface and in particular, as will become clearer later in this description, such projections being designed to hold the panel 10 at a distance apart from a matching, counteropposing panel.
Furthermore, the projecting means comprise the extensions 40, 42, 44, 46, which are designed to hold the suitable resistant means comprising steel resistant reinforcement at a distance apart from the panel, as will become clearer in the course of the present description.
As the figures show, advantageously, the projecting means extend perpendicularly with respect to the face 16 of the panel 10 which has a wide and substantially flat longitudinal surface 16a.
As FIG. 1 shows, the panel has, as per convention, a prevalent or longitudinal direction of development, marked by the arrow “L” in FIG. 1.
As shown, the projecting means comprise at least one plurality of projections which are arranged in the longitudinal direction L of the panel; the panel has a first and a second plurality of projections, marked with the reference numerals 26 and 28, which are on or close to, respectively the side edges 22, 24 of the panel 10.
In addition and as shown in the figures, there are projecting means in the central zone of the lengthways face 16 comprising a plurality of projections which are also arranged along the longitudinal direction L of the panel.
In particular, the projecting means also comprise projections 26′, 28′, 30′ and 26″, 28″, 30″ which are on or close to a corresponding crossways head and tail 18, 20 of the panel.
The figures show in more detail that the projections of the plurality of side projections 26, 28 and central projections 30 are aligned lengthways to each other.
Furthermore, as shown, the projections of the plurality of projections 26, 28 and 30 are also aligned crossways to each other.
Advantageously, the projecting means 26, 28 and 30 have the shape of column elements which extend along the longitudinal or prevalent axis “l”, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, which extends perpendicularly to the longitudinal surface 16.
In this way the invention provides projections which are suitable for spacing the panel and at the same time do not interrupt the continuity of the concrete wall associated with the panel thus advantageously improving the structural resistance of the wall itself. The concrete wall during use continues smoothly over the side edges 22, 24 of the panel.
In particular, the column element has a side surface which extends directly from the corresponding longitudinal face 16 of the panel and a perpendicular end surface marked with the reference numbers 26e, 28e, 30e.
As the figures show, the side surface of the column element comprises surfaces or faces marked with the reference numbers 26a, 26b, 26c, 26d for the projecting element 26, reference numbers 28a, 28b, 28c, 28d for the projecting element 28, and reference numbers 30a, 30b, 30c, 30d for the projecting element 30.
In particular, the respective projecting element 26, 28, 30 has a substantially square but preferably rectangular shape, with the long side oriented in the longitudinal direction L of the panel.
The figures also show that the side faces of the column or perpendicular elements are connected to each other by arched radius sections.
As illustrated, advantageously, the column elements 26, 28 have end faces 28a, 26b which are coplanar with, and on the respective side edges 22, 24 of the panel.
Furthermore and as illustrated, the projecting end column 26′, 28′, 30′ have a head side 26c, 28c, 30c which is coplanar with, and on the respective crossways head edge 18.
In practice and as illustrated, the projecting means 26, 28, 30 have side faces which are parallel with the corresponding sides or edges of the panel.
Advantageously, each projection 26, 28, 30 of the panel is longitudinally spaced apart from the adjacent projections 26, 28, 30.
In particular, each projection 26, 28, 30 is longitudinally spaced apart from the adjacent projections 26, 28, 30 by a distance “d” which is greater than the length “lu” of the corresponding projection.
In particular, the distance “d” is four times greater than the length “lu” and, for example, if the distance “d” is equal to 430 mm then it follows that the length “lu” is equal to 90 mm.
Furthermore, advantageously the present invention provides panel engaging and retaining means designed to exert a corresponding retaining action in a crossways direction for the present panel.
Advantageously these retaining means are provided on the projecting means and in particular on the free end 26e, 28e of the projecting means 26, 28 and comprise a protuberance 32 and a corresponding recess 34 on the column element 26 and on the column element 28.
Advantageously, the protuberance 32, as illustrated, takes the form of a long protuberance extending in the longitudinal direction of the panel and comprising the opposite side faces 32a, 32b and a perpendicular end face 32c which is parallel to the surface 16a of the panel 12 and to the perpendicular surface 26e of the respective projection from which the protuberance 32 projects. In turn the side faces 32a, 32b are substantially perpendicular to the end surface 32c.
In turn, the recess 34 takes the form of a long recess extending in the longitudinal direction of the panel and has a perpendicular bottom face 34c and opposing side faces 34a, 34b. As illustrated, the recess 34 is open on its longitudinal end.
In particular, the bottom surface 34c is parallel to the surface 16a of the panel 12 and to the perpendicular end surface 28e of the corresponding projection, while the opposite side faces 34a, 34b are substantially perpendicular to the perpendicular bottom wall 34c.
As illustrated, the retaining means have a plurality of projections and recesses 32 and 34 which are arranged lengthways and crossways and in particular are aligned lengthways and crossways to each other and which are on, or close to the longitudinal edges or sides 22, 24 of the panel.
As illustrated, the projections 32 are positioned on a side 24 of the panel 10 and the recesses 34 are positioned on the opposite side 22 of the panel.
In practice, as will become clearer from the description which follows, the end face of the projection 32c makes contact with the bottom surface 34c of a counteropposing panel recess with which the panel is associated.
Furthermore, in practice, the surfaces 26e, 28e and 30e of the projections 26, 28 and 30 make contact with the corresponding surfaces of the panel to which the present panel is associated.
The provision of projections 26, 28 and 30, comprising the spacers for the panel 10, being located in suitable, preset positions enable the easy positioning of metallic reinforcement such as metallic mesh without causing interference with the projections themselves.
Advantageously, the projecting means designed to space the panels apart have a maximum height “h” of between 30 mm and 150 mm and preferably a height between 50 mm and 135 mm.
As it will become clearer from the description which follows, by selecting a suitable height “h” for the projecting column elements it is possible to define, between the panels which will be joined to each other to form a composite panel, a predefined distance suitable for inserting a spacer, or width, in the concrete casting, which can be defined according to the structural characteristics required for this structural element.
Furthermore, the projecting column means 26, 28, 30 have a width “la”, which is, for example, substantially equal to 50 mm and a length “lu” which is, for example, substantially equal to 90 mm.
As shown in the figures, in order to avoid interrupting the continuity of the concrete structure, the distance “t” between the rows of projections 26, 28, 30 is greater than the width “la” of the respective projections. In particular, the distance “t” is 9 times greater than the width “la”.
In practice, the expanded polystyrene panel 10 provides means suitable for thermally insulating the inside of a construction and in addition, it provides means for containing the concrete casting, or means defining disposable formwork.
The projecting means 40, 42, 44 and 46 define means designed to hold the resistant reinforcement at a distance from the corresponding face 16 and are in particular designed to receive and engage or support reinforcement or resistant metallic mesh; advantageously these projections have a long shape and extend in the longitudinal direction of the panel.
As the figures show, these projecting means 40, 42, 44, 46 engaging the resistant reinforcement have a height which is much lower than that of the spacing projecting means and a height which is, for example, substantially equal to 20 mm. The width of the long extensions 40, 42, 44, 46 is, for example, substantially equal to 30 mm.
As the figures show, the projecting means designed to act as spacers holding the resistant reinforcement away from the inner face 16 of the panel 12 extend lengthways in an intermediate zone of the face 16 of the panel and are positioned between the corresponding projecting means designed to space the panel and are positioned between the side projecting means 26, 28 and the central projecting means 30.
As illustrated, the projecting means for the resistant reinforcement comprise at least one plurality of perpendicular extensions 40, 42 and 44, 46 which are arranged according to the longitudinal extension of the panel 10.
In particular and as illustrated, the projections of the plurality of projections or extensions 40, 42, 44, 46 are aligned lengthways to each other.
In particular, the invention provides pairs of projections 40, 42 and 44, 46, which have corresponding projections and are positioned crossways staggered with respect to the plurality of adjacent projections.
As it can be seen, particularly in FIG. 2, the adjacent plurality of projections 40, 42 and 44, 46 have a total length which completely covers the length of the panel in a longitudinal direction.
In practice and as illustrated, the adjacent plurality of projections 42, 44 and 44, 46 have longitudinal ends which correspond to the longitudinal ends of the corresponding projections in the adjacent row of projections.
As shown in the figures, the longitudinal face 14 opposite to the longitudinal extension face 16 of the projecting means has a plurality of longitudinal and parallel grooves marked with the reference number 17 and defined by a bottom surface 17a and a pair of side surfaces 17b, 17c tapering towards the outside of the panel.
As illustrated the longitudinal grooves or channels 17 are connected by flat surfaces 19 which are parallel to the bottom 17a of the grooves.
The expanded polystyrene panel advantageously takes the form of a moulded panel where the projecting means form a single body with the body of the panel 12.
As it will become clearer from the description which follows, it is provided to making a series of panels suitable for being joined to corresponding panels to thereby define a composite panel in which each panel of the series has a height of the projecting means which is different to the height of the other panels of the series and where the thickness of the main body of the panel is different from the thickness of the other panels in the respective series.
FIGS. 5 to 7 show a preferred embodiment of a composite panel 100 for making a building construction comprising first and second panels 10′, 10″ which are positioned facing each other and which comprises a body panel 12 made from an insulating material and in particular made from a plastic material or expanded plastic material and preferably expanded polystyrene.
The present composite panel 100 has, as shown, panels 10′, 10″ with projecting means 26, 28, 30 which extend from one longitudinal face 16 of the panel whose face 16 faces towards the other panel and in which the respective projecting means rest on each other.
As illustrated, the first and second panels 10′, 10″ also have means for engaging and retaining panels which are coplanar to the longitudinal face 16 in a crossways direction and which take the form of protuberances and/or recesses 32, 34 engaging with their corresponding recesses or protuberances 34, 32 on the other panel and in which the projections and recesses are on the projecting means 26, 28.
In practice and as shown in the figures, the first panel 10′ has protuberances 32 on a projection 26 where the protuberance 32 is inserted into a recess 34 in the counteropposing projecting element 28 of the other panel 10″.
On the opposite longitudinal side, the first panel 10′ has a recess 34 on the projection 28 which is designed to receive the protuberance 32 projecting from a projecting element 26 of the other panel 10″.
Advantageously, the panels 10′, 10″ can be obtained from a common mould and therefore have a completely similar shape so that they are counteropposing in use and so that a projection on one side of one panel is inserted into the corresponding recess on the counteropposing face of the other panel and vice versa.
As illustrated, the composite panel 100 also has first and second metallic reinforcements 50, 60 which are counteropposing and defined by longitudinal metallic rods 52, 62 which are connected by means of crossways metallic rods 54, 64 thereby defining a reinforcing metallic mesh.
As illustrated, each metallic reinforcement or mesh 50, 60 engages with the projecting means 40, 42, 44, 46 which holds them at an adjacent face 16 of the corresponding panels 10′ and 10″.
There are perpendicular means 65 for holding the counteropposing resistant reinforcements 50, 60 apart from each other where such means 65 take the form of corresponding perpendicular wires which are fixed, by welding, to the reinforcements 50, 60.
According to this embodiment, the perpendicular wires 65 on the end portions extend within the body of the panels and have ends on the outer faces 14′ and 14″ of the panels 10′, 10″, being connected to the reinforcements or metallic mesh assembly marked respectively with the reference numbers 70 and 80 and which are on the side or external longitudinal face 14 of the respective panel 10′, 10″.
As illustrated, the metallic reinforcement assembly 70, 80 of the panel 100 comprises longitudinal elements 72, 82 which are connected by corresponding crossways elements 74, 84.
These longitudinal elements 72, 82 and crossways elements 74, 84 of the metallic mesh assembly 70, 80 take the form of wires or elongated metallic elements of a smaller diameter than the rods of the metallic reinforcements 50, 60 which are inside the composite panel 100.
The first and second metallic reinforcement assemblies 70, 80 are connected to each other by perpendicular metallic wire elements 65 which are welded and which define in this embodiment the spacing means of the resistant internal metallic reinforcements 50, 60.
An advantageous procedure for making a panel 10 where the panel comprises a panel body, 12 made from an expanded plastic material preferably expanded polystyrene, involves the use of a shaped mould which advantageously has a suitable mobile part designed to define the projecting means 26, 28, 30 of the panel body such means having a height that can be varied as required from one panel to another in accordance with production specifications.
It would also be possible to make a mould with a suitable mobile part designed to define the thickness of the main body 12 of the panel where the thickness can be varied as required from one panel to another in accordance with production specifications.
In an advantageous procedure for making a composite panel comprising first and second expanded polystyrene panels 10′, 10″ and also first and second meshes 50, 60 defining resistant means between the first and second panels 10′, 10″, the procedure involves resting the first and second panels directly one against the other.
This procedure also involves engaging the projecting elements 26, 28, 30 of the panel 10′ with the projecting elements 26, 28, 30 of the other panel 10″.
Furthermore, this procedure involves positioning the resistant reinforcements 50, 60, provided between the panels 10′ and 10″, on the longitudinal elongated projections 40, 42, 44, 46 of the panel.
In situations where the panel 10′ engages with the other panel 10″, the retaining elements 32, 34 of the panel 10′ engage with the retaining elements 32, 34 of the other panel 10″.
This embodiment also has metallic wire spacers 65 for the reinforcements 50 and 60 and connecting elements between the outer reinforcement assemblies 70, 80.
In practice, with a single mould it is possible to obtain panels which can be paired with each other in order to define a composite panel.
The invention described is susceptible to industrial application and may be modified and adapted in several ways without thereby departing from the scope of the inventive concept. Moreover, all the details of the invention may be substituted by technically equivalent elements.