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Multi-hit capable transparent, multi-stack armor system




Title: Multi-hit capable transparent, multi-stack armor system.
Abstract: A transparent armor laminate system includes a plurality of sub-stacks separated by an interlayer. The sub-stacks include a plurality of layers including a glass ceramic front strike-face layer, a backing layer comprising a spall-resistant material, and at least one glass layer laminated between the strike-face and backing layers. The interlayer isolates cracks between sub-stacks, and may include an isolating material such as a polymer, gas, or liquid. The laminate system offers improved performance with reduced weight over conventional all-glass or all-glass-ceramic transparent armors. ...


USPTO Applicaton #: #20100275767
Inventors: Linda Ruth Pinckney, Huan-hung Sheng, Steven Alvin Tietje, Jian-zhi Jay Zhang


The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20100275767, Multi-hit capable transparent, multi-stack armor system.

PRIORITY

This application claim the priority of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/967,232 filed on Aug. 31, 2007 naming Linda R. Pinckney, Huan-Hung Sheng, Steven A. Tietje and Jian Zhi (Jay) Zhang as inventors and entitled “MULTI-HIT TRANSPARENT, MULTI-STACK ARMOR SYSTEM.”

FIELD

The invention is directed to a hybrid laminated transparent armor system, and in particular to a composite armor system containing a glass-ceramic material and a conventional glass material.

BACKGROUND

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Transparent materials that are used for ballistic protection (armor) include (1) conventional glasses, for example, soda lime and borosilicate glass which are typically manufactured using the float process; (2) crystalline materials such as aluminum oxy-nitride (ALON), spinel, and sapphire; and (3) glass-ceramic materials (“GC”). In the last category, a transparent lithium disilicate GC from Alstom, known as TransArm, has been studied by several groups. Due to its superior weight efficiency against ball rounds and small fragments, TransArm has the potential to increase performance of protective devices such as face shield; studies of the shock behavior of these materials have shown that the GC has a high post-failure strength compared to that of amorphous glasses. See GB 2 284 655 A; PCT International Patent Publication WO 03/022767 A1; and J. C. F. Millett, N. K. Bourne, and I. M. Pickup, The behaviour of a SiO2—Li2O glass ceramic during one-dimensional shock loading, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 3530-3536 (2005). Other prior art includes [1] U.S. Pat. No. 5,060,553 and [2] U.S. Pat. No. 5,496,640 which describe, respectively, [1] armor material based on glass-ceramic bonded to an energy-absorbing, fiber-containing backing layer, and [2] fire- and impact-resistant transparent laminates comprising parallel sheets of glass-ceramic and polymer, with intended use for security or armor glass capable of withstanding high heat and direct flames. Additional patent or patent application art includes U.S. Pat. No. 5,045,371 titled Glass Matrix Armor (describing a soda-lime glass matrix with particles of ceramic dispersed throughout, the ceramic not being grown in situ in the glass) and U.S. Patent Application US 2005/0119104 A1 (2005) titled Protection From Kinetic Threats Using Glass-Ceramic Material (describing an opaque armor based on anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) glass-ceramics).

SUMMARY

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In one aspect, using ballistics testing of various combinations of glass, glass-ceramic, and spall-resistant layering, we have discovered that the combination of a hard transparent GC strike face with one or more intermediate layers of glass and a spall-resistant backing layer provides significantly better ballistics performance as a function of areal density than does an all-GC or all-glass design. We have seen no reference in the prior art to the benefits of this particular configuration.

In another aspect, the invention is directed to the use of laminations of transparent GCs with glass for various armor systems; for example, armor systems for ground vehicles and aircraft as well as for personal protective devices. The optical properties of these armor systems meet the visible transparency as well as near IR transparency requirements of military armor systems, and their moderate density combined with a higher ballistics limit offers either of two important attributes or a combination of both attributes which are: (1) The ability to achieve ballistics performance equivalent to that of glass, with lower thickness, thereby providing critically-needed lower weight for armor systems; and (2) The ability to achieve superior ballistics performance with the same laminate thickness used for current transparent armor systems.

In one embodiment the invention is directed to a transparent armor laminate system, said laminate system comprising one or a plurality of glass-ceramic material layers, one or a plurality of glass layers and a backing or spall layer; wherein said glass-ceramic layer has a crystalline component and a glass component, the crystalline component being in the range of 20-98 Vol. % of the glass ceramic and the glass component being in the range of 2-80 Vol. %. In another embodiment the crystalline component is in the range of 50-98 Vol. % and the glass component is in the range of 2-50 Vol. %. The layers in a stack of the foregoing materials may be bonded together using an adhesive material in any form, for example, a paste, gel or a sheet material. The adhesive material is placed between the layers of each stack. When the glass-ceramic, glass and spall layers are bonded together using a polymeric sheet material, bonding is achieved by application of heat and/or pressure. Adhesives in gel, paste or other fluid or semi-fluid form may be cured and bonding achieved by application of heat or radiation. The bonding materials, adhesive or polymer material, should match the refractive index of the other materials as closely as possible so as not to lessen optical performance. In preferred embodiments the adhesive and polymeric material should be transparent to infrared radiation.

In another embodiment the invention is directed to a transparent armor laminate system having a plurality of “n” sub-stacks containing a glass-ceramic strike-face layer, at least one intermediary glass layer, and a backing layer, where n is an integer having a value of greater than one, and wherein each sub-stack is separated by an interlayer. The interlayer includes a filling material comprising a gas (including air), a fluid, a polymeric material, a gel; or a combination thereof. The GC layer has a crystalline component and a glass component, the crystalline component being in the range of 20-98 Vol. % and the glass component being in the range of 2-80 Vol. %. In another embodiment the crystalline component is in the range of 50-98 Vol. % and the glass component is in the range of 2-50 Vol. %. The layers in a stack of the foregoing materials may be bonded together using an adhesive material in any form, for example, a paste, gel or a sheet material. The adhesive material is placed between the layers of each stack. When the glass-ceramic, glass and spall layers are bonded together using a polymeric sheet material, bonding is achieved by application of heat and/or pressure. Adhesives in gel, paste or other fluid or semi-fluid form may be cured and bonding achieved by application of heat or radiation. The bonding materials, adhesive or polymer material, should match the refractive index of the other materials as closely as possible so as not to lessen optical performance. In preferred embodiments the adhesive and polymeric material should be transparent to infrared radiation.

In a further embodiment the invention is directed to a transparent armor laminate system having plurality of “n” of sub-stacks containing a glass-ceramic strike-face layer, one or a plurality of glass layers and a backing layer, where n is an integer greater than one, and wherein each sub-stack is separated by an interlayer comprising a gap filled with a gas such as air or inert gas, and wherein the glass-ceramic layer has a crystalline component and a glass component, the crystalline component being in the range of 20-98 Vol. % crystalline component and the glass component being in the range of 2-80 Vol. %. In another embodiment the crystalline component is in the range of 50-98 Vol. % and the glass component is in the range of 2-50 Vol. %.

A transparent armor laminate system comprising a plurality of sub-stacks separated by an interlayer; the front or first sub-stack comprising a plurality of layers including a strike-face layer comprising a glass-ceramic, a backing layer of a spall-resistant material, and at least one intermediate layer comprising glass and laminated between the strike-face layer and the backing layer; the remaining sub-stack(s) comprising a plurality of layers including a strike-face comprising at selected one from the group consisting of a glass-ceramic layer and a glass layer, a backing layer of a spall-resistant material, and at least one intermediate layer comprising glass and laminated between the strike-face layer and the backing layer; and an interlayer between at least the front or first stack and the adjacent sub-stack comprising an isolating material selected from a group consisting of gas, a fluid, a polymeric material, a gel, and combinations thereof.




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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20100275767 A1
Publish Date
11/04/2010
Document #
File Date
12/31/1969
USPTO Class
Other USPTO Classes
International Class
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20101104|20100275767|multi-hit capable transparent, multi-stack armor system|A transparent armor laminate system includes a plurality of sub-stacks separated by an interlayer. The sub-stacks include a plurality of layers including a glass ceramic front strike-face layer, a backing layer comprising a spall-resistant material, and at least one glass layer laminated between the strike-face and backing layers. The interlayer |
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