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Fiber optic diffraction grating




Title: Fiber optic diffraction grating.
Abstract: The present invention is directed to an optical fiber grating having a core, that is capable of controlling the light signal transmission therethrough by causing at least one of: at least one spectral peak, and/or at least one spectral dip in its core light transmission spectrum, corresponding to at least one predetermined wavelength. The inventive optical fiber diffraction grating comprises at least one longitudinally positioned structural element of a predetermined geometric profile and that is configured for diffracting a portion of the transmitted light signal at at least one predefined wavelength thereof, from at least one core mode into at least one of: at least one cladding mode and/or at least one radiating mode. Various embodiments of a number of novel techniques for fabrication of the inventive optical fiber diffraction grating are provided, inclusive of a novel technique for fabricating the inventive grating from a single material. Advantageously, such novel fabrication techniques rely on configuration of a desired geometric profile for the at least one structural element portion of the novel grating, each profile comprising a number of readily configurable parameters that can be selected and/or adjusted during fabrication, to produce a variety of novel fiber diffraction gratings, each having a corresponding specific desirable core transmission spectrum having at least one of: least one spectral peak, and/or at least one spectral dip therein, corresponding to at least one specific desired wavelength, dependent on the configuration of the applicable geometric profile. ...


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USPTO Applicaton #: #20100158438
Inventors: Victor Churikov, Victor Il'ich Kopp


The Patent Description & Claims data below is from USPTO Patent Application 20100158438, Fiber optic diffraction grating.

CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

The present patent application claims priority from the commonly assigned co-pending U.S. provisional patent application 61/138,907 entitled “Fiber Optic Diffraction Grating”, filed Dec. 18, 2008.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

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The present invention relates generally to fiber grating type structures, and more particularly to an optical fiber grating capable of diffracting a portion of a light signal transmission therethrough at at least one predefined wavelength thereof.

BACKGROUND

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OF THE INVENTION

Fiber gratings are incorporated into components that form the backbone of modern information and communications technologies, and are suitable for a wide range of applications, such as information processing and optical fiber communication systems utilizing wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). There are many different fiber grating types and configurations, with a wide variety of capabilities. For example, fiber Bragg gratings are useful in lasing, filtering and sensing applications. Various Bragg grating configurations also include chirped fiber gratings useful in chromatic dispersion compensators and apodized fiber gratings that are used to eliminate sidelobes in signal transmission spectra. Another type of fiber grating—a long period grating—is of particular interest in sensing and filtering applications. Light passing through a long period grating is modified rather than reflected, as occurs in fiber Bragg gratings. Also, unlike a fiber Bragg grating, a long period grating is typically used for coupling the mode of the fiber core into the fiber cladding. A long period grating has a spectral characteristic with multiple transmission gaps. The positions of these gaps along the spectral range depend on the refractive index of a medium outside the cladding of the fiber. Thus, changing the outside refractive index produces a shift in the transmission gaps. Typically, the period of a long period grating is significantly longer than the wavelength of light passing through the grating.

However, there are also a number of important applications for which an optical fiber grating constructed and configured to produce at least one spectral dip (corresponding to at least one predefined wavelength) in the transmission spectrum of a light signal being transmitted therethrough, for which such a grating would be the only practical solution, or for which it would be the best solution (or at least a more optimal solution than a long period grating). This is especially the case in applications where fiber gratings of very small lengths are desirable or necessary.

There are also useful applications for which it would be advantageous to provide the above-described diffraction grating that is substantially produced from a single material (as opposed to conventional gratings which typically have cores and claddings of different materials (or which may use the same material for the core and cladding with one of the materials being doped by another material), to ensure a predetermined minimum index contrast value therebetween. Additionally, there are applications for which it would be useful to have a grating capable of producing at least one spectral peak in its core light transmission spectrum, corresponding to at least one predetermined wavelength.

It would thus be desirable to provide an optical fiber grating for controlling the light signal transmission therethrough by diffracting a portion of the transmitted light signal at at least one predefined wavelength thereof, causing at least one of: at least one predetermined spectral dip, and/or at least one predetermined peak, in the resulting light transmission spectrum, each corresponding to the at least one wavelength of the diffracted portions(s) of the transmitted light signal. It would also be desirable to provide the above-described fiber optic diffraction grating that may be readily fabricated in its entirety from a single material.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

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In the drawings, wherein like reference characters denote corresponding or similar elements throughout the various figures:

FIG. 1A shows a schematic diagram of a cross-sectional view of a first exemplary embodiment of the fiber optic diffraction grating of the present invention;

FIG. 1B shows a schematic diagram of a side view of the first exemplary embodiment of the fiber optic diffraction grating of FIG. 1A;

FIG. 2A shows a schematic diagram of a cross-sectional view of a second exemplary embodiment of the fiber optic diffraction grating of the present invention; and

FIG. 2B shows a schematic diagram of a side view of the second exemplary embodiment of the fiber optic diffraction grating of FIG. 2A.

SUMMARY

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OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to an optical fiber grating having a core, that is capable of controlling the light signal transmission therethrough by causing at least one of: at least one spectral peak, and/or at least one spectral dip in its core light transmission spectrum, corresponding to at least one predetermined wavelength.

The inventive optical fiber diffraction grating comprises at least one longitudinally positioned structural element of a predetermined geometric profile and that is configured for diffracting a portion of the transmitted light signal at at least one predefined wavelength thereof, from at least one core mode into at least one of: at least one cladding mode and/or at least one radiating mode. Various embodiments of a number of novel techniques for fabrication of the inventive optical fiber diffraction grating are provided, inclusive of a novel technique for fabricating the inventive grating from a single material.

Advantageously, such novel fabrication techniques rely on configuration of a desired geometric profile for the at least one structural element portion of the novel grating, each profile comprising a number of readily configurable parameters that can be selected and/or adjusted during fabrication, to produce a variety of novel fiber diffraction gratings, each having a corresponding specific desirable core transmission spectrum having at least one of: least one spectral peak, and/or at least one spectral dip therein, corresponding to at least one specific desired wavelength, dependent on the configuration of the applicable geometric profile.

Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings. It is to be understood, however, that the drawings are designed solely for purposes of illustration and not as a definition of the limits of the invention, for which reference should be made to the appended claims.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

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OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

The present invention is directed to an optical fiber grating having a core, that is capable of controlling the light signal transmission therethrough by causing at least one of: at least one spectral peak, and/or at least one spectral dip in its core light transmission spectrum, corresponding to at least one predetermined wavelength. The inventive optical fiber diffraction grating accomplishes the above, by providing at least one longitudinal structural element therein of a predetermined geometric profile and that is configured for diffracting a portion of the transmitted light signal at at least one predefined wavelength thereof, from at least one core mode into at least one of: at least one cladding mode and/or at least one radiating mode.

In various embodiments of the inventive optical fiber diffraction grating, an number of novel techniques for fabrication thereof are provided, inclusive of a novel technique for fabricating the inventive grating from a single material. Advantageously, the various novel fabrication techniques provided for the novel fiber diffraction grating in accordance with the present invention rely on configuration of a desired geometric profile for the at least one structural element portion of the novel grating, each profile comprising a number of readily configurable parameters that can be selected and/or adjusted during fabrication, to produce a variety of novel fiber diffraction gratings, each having a corresponding specific desirable core transmission spectrum having at least one of: least one spectral peak, and/or at least one spectral dip therein, corresponding to at least one specific desired wavelength, dependent on the configuration of the applicable geometric profile.

It is well known that in conventional optical fibers the necessary index contrast between the fiber core and cladding, to ensure that a light signal being transmitted therethrough would substantially travel in a core mode, can be achieved in a number of different ways, for example by using materials with sufficiently different refractive index for each of the core and the cladding, through doping of the core with an appropriate material, and in other well-known ways.

In recent years, a different solution, for producing an optical fiber capable of guiding light through its core, has been successfully developed—microstructured (“MS”) optical fibers are fibers that enable a different way of guiding light through their cores, and that can be fabricated from a single material (without necessity for doping the core). Instead of a conventional core, the MS fibers in essence provide a “virtual” core, that is defined by a set of specially configured and positioned predetermined longitudinal elements disposed around the fiber\'s central longitudinal axis. For example, these longitudinal elements may be a periodic array of longitudinal channels (i.e., “holes”) in the cladding positioned around the fiber\'s central axis to define a “core”, with light transmitted therethrough now being guided in such a core. This advantageous light confinement to/within the MS fiber core takes effect, and is determined by, at least one of the following two main reasons: (1) effective refractive index of the cladding is lower that the region of the MS “core”, and/or (2) the structure of periodic array of channels results in Bragg reflections in the MS fiber structure that cause the MS “core” to guide light, for example through a centermost channel.




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stats Patent Info
Application #
US 20100158438 A1
Publish Date
06/24/2010
Document #
File Date
12/31/1969
USPTO Class
Other USPTO Classes
International Class
/
Drawings
0




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20100624|20100158438|fiber optic diffraction grating|The present invention is directed to an optical fiber grating having a core, that is capable of controlling the light signal transmission therethrough by causing at least one of: at least one spectral peak, and/or at least one spectral dip in its core light transmission spectrum, corresponding to at least |Chiral-Photonics-Inc
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